Primary liver hepatocytes are known to have endogenous GCGR expression

actors that facilitate or hinder association between galectins and transmembrane mucins is not only critical to understanding the organization of the epithelial glycocalyx, but also may be exploited for potential therapeutic development. Synthetic glycopolymers that emulate natural mucins have been developed during the past few years to study how the structure of mucin glycans and their spatial arrangements along the mucin’s polypeptide backbone affect the interactions with carbohydratebinding proteins. Glycopolymers functionalized with lipid tails have been introduced into membranes of live cells such as ldlD CHO, a cell type lacking endogenous mucins. Here, we show that glycopolymers decorated with pendant cellobiose- and lactose-glycans incorporate into cultures of stratified human corneal epithelial cells, known to contain apical islands of undifferentiated and differentiated cells, the latter featuring glycosylated transmembrane mucins. Increasing the amount of cellobiose on the cell surface via glycopolymer insertion enhanced rose bengal uptake, suggesting that interference with surface recognition of endogenous lactosyl residues impairs barrier function at the ocular surface. Unexpectedly, insertion of lactose-containing glycopolymers, which have the capacity to bind galectin-3, did not enhance barrier function in our three-dimensional culture system; in fact, the regions of rose bengal uptake detected were similar to those of control cultures. A possible explanation is that lactose-containing glycopolymers incorporate into the glycocalyx but fail to compete for galectin-3 binding in the presence of endogenous glycosylated mucins– natural ligands for galectin-3 on apical surfaces. Alternatively, lactose-containing glycopolymers may incorporate into undifferentiated apical cells with poorly glycosylated mucins, but in insufficient quantities to efficiently induce lattice formation. As restoring barrier function is essential to the treatment of ocular surface disease, further research is required to elucidate the underlying causes that may impair the gain of glycocalyx barrier function when synthetic glycopolymers are used. Overall, data in this study indicate that both multimerization of galectin-3 and surface recognition of lactosyl residues are required to Indirubin-3′-oxime chemical information maintain glycocalyx barrier function at the ocular surface. 8901831 Studies aiming to determine whether the ocular surface glycocalyx can be manipulated therapeutically to enhance bioavailability of topical drugs are likely to lead to greatly improved treatment for ocular surface diseases. Mice Galectin-3 null mice were generated by homologous recombination on a C57BL/6 background as described previously. Six- to eight-week-old, Gal32/2 and wild type mice were used. Cell culture Telomerase-immortalized human corneal-limbal epithelial cells were plated at a seeding density of 56104 cells/ cm2. HCLE cells were maintained at 37uC in 5% CO2 and grown in GIBCO keratinocyte serum-free medium supplemented with bovine pituitary extract, 0.2 ng/ml epithelium growth factor and 0.4 mM CaCl2. Once confluent, cells were switched to Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium/F-12 supplemented with 10% calf serum and 10 ng/ml EGF for 7 20065018 days to promote cell stratification and establishment of barrier function. Cloning and purification of full-length galectin-3 and galectin-3 N-terminal deletion mutant cDNA encoding human galectin-3 was amplified by polymerase chain reaction using reverse transcribed mRNA ex