The water was changed every other day, and CE re-added with each water change

ates, 8146 and J1, bound within PubMed ID:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19717844 the range 600700 IE/mm2 to HDMEC despite J1 being assigned as low-avidity ICAM-1 binder on purified ICAM-1. Another two isolates, 8206 and 8131, showed relatively less binding to HDMEC although 8206 was categorised as a high-avidity ICAM-1 binder on PubMed ID:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19718258 purified ICAM-1. Further investigation using an anti-ICAM-1 mAb revealed similar activity for 15.2 mAb on almost all isolates, reducing binding by approximately 50%. However, the binding was reduced by about 80% for eight isolates in the presence of the anti-CD36 mAb and for the other three was reduced by about 60%. Discussion The aim of this study was to establish the binding characteristics of a set of new ICAM-1 binding isolates to provide further information about the interaction between ICAM-1 and PfEMP-1. The purpose of using field isolates is usually to investigate the association between binding phenotypes and clinical outcomes. The selection of ICAM-1 binding PfEMP-1 populations in this study introduces bias by potentially expanding small sub-populations from the original sample and so cannot be used to derive associations between the clinical outcomes and binding phenotypes. Our original study used three genetically distinct ICAM-1binding laboratory isolates are included in this work for comparison), screened against 25 mutant ICAM-1 proteins using static and flow adhesion systems. Based on this previous work, binding and inhibition assays were run on a larger number of recently lab-adapted isolates using the ICAM-1 mutations previously shown to disrupt the binding and discriminating between laboratory isolates, using static assays only. Binding to endothelial cells was investigated using a flow adhesion system. Alanine replacement mutagenesis and ICAM-1-specific mAbs have given more details about the binding region on ICAM-1 for P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes. The binding between IE and ICAM-1 was revealed to involve the BED face of ICAM-1, including the DE loop. The binding phenotypes from previous studies were categorised based on the isolate’s avidity to ICAM-1. Overall, the new binding and inhibition data support the original findings that different order MRT-67307 ICAM-1-binding isolates can use different contact residues in the DE loop of ICAM-1 to bind. 5 ICAM-1 Binding Variation in P. falciparum Patient Isolates Moreover, current data support previous findings by demonstrating a significant role for L42 for all ICAM-1-binding isolates. Two ICAM-1-specific mAbs My13 and 15.2, which have been mapped to epitopes including the L42 residue, reduced the binding of all the isolates. The binding of low-avidity-ICAM-1 isolates was more affected by these mAbs than high-avidityICAM-1 parasites. 8.4A6 ICAM-1 mAb, which targets an epitope on domain 2, can also inhibit the binding of all isolates. This might be explained by the epitope in domain 2 being in a position close to domain 1 or affecting the structure of this domain, as they have been shown to interact to produce the native ICAM-1 structure. Interestingly, most of the isolates were low-avidity ICAM-1 binders similar to A4, which was previously associated with a signature that reflects isolates from SM cases. Flow adhesion on endothelial cell assays more accurately resembles the situation seen in the human circulation than static assays. In the present study, we used TNF-activated HDMEC, which expresses both ICAM-1 and CD36 receptors as well as other endothelial receptors, using the Cellix system to measure

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