Ed ADH, neither the GreA lane nor the ADH lane showed

Ed ADH, neither the GreA lane nor the ADH lane showed any change. Furthermore, no complex was detected. We propose that distinct from most molecular chaperones, GreA does not bind to denatured substrates and form complexes, indicating that alternative mechanisms are responsible for its chaperone function.Hydrophobicity of protein GreABoth the hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity of the GreA molecule have been demonstrated by crystal structure analysis. A binding experiment using 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonic 1676428 acid (ANS) also underscored the hydrophobic nature of GreA (Figure 4A). As the temperature increased, more ANS molecules became bound to the GreA molecule, resulting in increased fluorescence intensity. This indicated that more hydrophobic domains were exposed as the temperature rose. However, the circular dichroism (CD) results suggested that the structural change in this process is minimal (Figure 4B). As indicated by the CDNN analysis, only subtle changes in the secondary structure were detected (Table 1).Figure 2. GreA facilitates protein reactivation from unfolded state. (A) GreA facilitates GFP refolding. GFP (100 mM) was denatured in 0.12 M HCl for 60 min and then diluted 100-fold. Spontaneous refolding or in the presence of 3 mM GreA or 2 mM DnaK was monitored using a Fluostar Optima microplate reader. (B) GreA promotes LDH refolding after GnHCl denaturation. LDH (15 mM) denatured by 6 M GnHCl was diluted 100-fold to start spontaneous refolding or GreAfacilitated refolding. (a) Control (b) 0.3 mM GreA (c) 0.6 mM GreA (d) 1.2 mM GreA (e) 1.2 mM DnaK. (C) GreA promotes LDH refolding after heat denaturation. 0.2 mM LDH was incubated at 50uC for 80 min. After cooling down, 0.2 mM, 0.4 mM, 0.8 mM GreA or 0.5 mM DnaK was added to start refolding and the final concentration of LDH was adjusted to 0.1 mM. The enzymatic Epigenetics activity was detected after recovery for 30 min. (a) Control (b) 0.2 mM GreA (c) 0.4 mM GreA (d) 0.8 mM GreA (e) 0.5 mM DnaK. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047521.gGreA overexpression enhances bacterial stress resistanceTo further determine the physiological functions of GreA in vivo, we tested the effect of GreA-overexpression on cellular resistance to environmental stresses. As reported earlier, overexpression of certain chaperones can protect cellular proteins from aggregation, which endows the host cell with stress resistance [25?8]. Herein, we used the GreA-overexpressing E. coli BL21 (DE3) strain to validate the effect of GreA on resistance to high temperature and oxidizing conditions. The strain containing an empty vector was used as the control. In the heat shock experiment, both strains were challenged by treatment at 48uC for various time-periods after isopropyl-b-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction for 1 h. As shown in Figure 5A, after 60 min, the GreA-overexpressing strain had a survival rate of 27.7 . In contrast, almost no survival was observed for the control strain. To confirm that the enhanced resistance is due to the chaperone function of GreA, the cellular aggregates after heat shock have also been quantified. As shown in Figure 5C, the control strain showed more extensive aggregation than its counterpart strain. These results suggest that the presence of excess GreA molecules may prevent the heatinduced loss of cell viability by its chaperone function.was achieved. Addition of 3 mM GreA dramatically increase the refolding percentage to 84 . Lactate inhibitor dehydrogenase (LDH) was used as another substra.Ed ADH, neither the GreA lane nor the ADH lane showed any change. Furthermore, no complex was detected. We propose that distinct from most molecular chaperones, GreA does not bind to denatured substrates and form complexes, indicating that alternative mechanisms are responsible for its chaperone function.Hydrophobicity of protein GreABoth the hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity of the GreA molecule have been demonstrated by crystal structure analysis. A binding experiment using 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonic 1676428 acid (ANS) also underscored the hydrophobic nature of GreA (Figure 4A). As the temperature increased, more ANS molecules became bound to the GreA molecule, resulting in increased fluorescence intensity. This indicated that more hydrophobic domains were exposed as the temperature rose. However, the circular dichroism (CD) results suggested that the structural change in this process is minimal (Figure 4B). As indicated by the CDNN analysis, only subtle changes in the secondary structure were detected (Table 1).Figure 2. GreA facilitates protein reactivation from unfolded state. (A) GreA facilitates GFP refolding. GFP (100 mM) was denatured in 0.12 M HCl for 60 min and then diluted 100-fold. Spontaneous refolding or in the presence of 3 mM GreA or 2 mM DnaK was monitored using a Fluostar Optima microplate reader. (B) GreA promotes LDH refolding after GnHCl denaturation. LDH (15 mM) denatured by 6 M GnHCl was diluted 100-fold to start spontaneous refolding or GreAfacilitated refolding. (a) Control (b) 0.3 mM GreA (c) 0.6 mM GreA (d) 1.2 mM GreA (e) 1.2 mM DnaK. (C) GreA promotes LDH refolding after heat denaturation. 0.2 mM LDH was incubated at 50uC for 80 min. After cooling down, 0.2 mM, 0.4 mM, 0.8 mM GreA or 0.5 mM DnaK was added to start refolding and the final concentration of LDH was adjusted to 0.1 mM. The enzymatic activity was detected after recovery for 30 min. (a) Control (b) 0.2 mM GreA (c) 0.4 mM GreA (d) 0.8 mM GreA (e) 0.5 mM DnaK. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047521.gGreA overexpression enhances bacterial stress resistanceTo further determine the physiological functions of GreA in vivo, we tested the effect of GreA-overexpression on cellular resistance to environmental stresses. As reported earlier, overexpression of certain chaperones can protect cellular proteins from aggregation, which endows the host cell with stress resistance [25?8]. Herein, we used the GreA-overexpressing E. coli BL21 (DE3) strain to validate the effect of GreA on resistance to high temperature and oxidizing conditions. The strain containing an empty vector was used as the control. In the heat shock experiment, both strains were challenged by treatment at 48uC for various time-periods after isopropyl-b-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction for 1 h. As shown in Figure 5A, after 60 min, the GreA-overexpressing strain had a survival rate of 27.7 . In contrast, almost no survival was observed for the control strain. To confirm that the enhanced resistance is due to the chaperone function of GreA, the cellular aggregates after heat shock have also been quantified. As shown in Figure 5C, the control strain showed more extensive aggregation than its counterpart strain. These results suggest that the presence of excess GreA molecules may prevent the heatinduced loss of cell viability by its chaperone function.was achieved. Addition of 3 mM GreA dramatically increase the refolding percentage to 84 . Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was used as another substra.

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