Ime (up to 72 h) and analyzed by HPLC-ECD and LC/MS.

Ime (up to 72 h) and analyzed by HPLC-ECD and LC/MS. Figure 7 shows the representative HPLC chromatograms of TFDG incubated with Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (Figure 7A) and Bacillus 3-Amino-1-propanesulfonic acid chemical information subtilis (Figure 7B). TFDG was degraded progressively with time increasing. PG, GA, TF, TF3G and TF39G (M1 5) were identified as the metabolites of TFDG by comparing their retention time and tandem mass data with those of the authentic standards (data not shown).DiscussionIncreasing evidence has shown that theaflavins have antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities [5,6]. Studies have also reported that theaflavins have limited bioavailability with extremely low or 12926553 no circulating levels in plasma [4,7,8]. Therefore, a critical question is whether theaflavins-mediated beneficial effects in peripheral tissues are accomplished by theaflavin-derived metabolites. In general, the unabsorbed polyphenols will reach the large intestine where they will be metabolized by the gut microbiota to lower molecular weight metabolites [22]. We previously identified TF, TF3G, TF39G, and GA as the major fecal metabolites of TFDG in C57BL/6J mice [11]. Using GF mice, we observed the absence of TFDG-derived metabolites compared to SPF mice. This finding definitelyestablished the critical role of the microbiota enzymatic activities in generating TFDG-derived metabolites. These compounds are the microbial metabolites of TFDG through the PD-168393 biological activity cleavage of its galloyl groups. Human colon plays host to a highly complex microbial ecosystem, at concentrations of 1012 microorganisms per gram of gut content [14]. Using in vitro fecal batch fermentation, we found that TF, TF3G, TF39G, and GA are also the microbial metabolites of TFDG in human. In addition, we also identified PG as the metabolite of TFDG, TF3G, TF39G, and GA by human microbiota. Furthermore, we directly demonstrated that pure bacterial strains (Lactobacillus plantarum 299v and Bacillus subtilis) are capable to metabolize TFDG into PG, GA, TF, TF3G and TF39G. Both L. plantarum and B. subtilis can be 23727046 considered as gut commensals. Several studies have shown that L. plantarum, although commonly referred as a probiotic, could colonize the human intestine [23?6]. Johansson and co-workers have isolated this bacterium from jejunal and rectal biopsies 11 days after the original administration in 11 of 13 individuals [24]. It has been suggested that the human gastrointestinal tract can adapt to harbor this species as part of the normal microbiota after continuous exposure to it [23]. B. subtilis has been isolated from human ileum biopsies as well as from fecal samples [27]. Studies have also shown that L. plantarum has the capacity to metabolize the galloylated polyphenols from grape seeds to gallic acid and pyrogallol [18], and B. subtilis has a large spectrum of esterases that hydrolyze various esters [19?1]. However, it is still unknownMicrobial Metabolites of TheaflavinsFigure 4. HPLC-ECD chromatograms of microbial metabolites of GA after incubation with human fecal bacteria (A ); and MS/MS (negative ion) spectra of M1 and authentic PG (D). A, B and C represent the three human volunteers, respectively. GA: gallic acid; and PG: pyrogallol. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051001.gwhether these enzymes can metabolize theaflavin esters. Our study demonstrates, for the first time, the capacity of L. plantarum and B. subtilis to metabolize theaflavin mono- and di-gallate to TF, gallic acid and pyrogallol. Our results on the microbi.Ime (up to 72 h) and analyzed by HPLC-ECD and LC/MS. Figure 7 shows the representative HPLC chromatograms of TFDG incubated with Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (Figure 7A) and Bacillus subtilis (Figure 7B). TFDG was degraded progressively with time increasing. PG, GA, TF, TF3G and TF39G (M1 5) were identified as the metabolites of TFDG by comparing their retention time and tandem mass data with those of the authentic standards (data not shown).DiscussionIncreasing evidence has shown that theaflavins have antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities [5,6]. Studies have also reported that theaflavins have limited bioavailability with extremely low or 12926553 no circulating levels in plasma [4,7,8]. Therefore, a critical question is whether theaflavins-mediated beneficial effects in peripheral tissues are accomplished by theaflavin-derived metabolites. In general, the unabsorbed polyphenols will reach the large intestine where they will be metabolized by the gut microbiota to lower molecular weight metabolites [22]. We previously identified TF, TF3G, TF39G, and GA as the major fecal metabolites of TFDG in C57BL/6J mice [11]. Using GF mice, we observed the absence of TFDG-derived metabolites compared to SPF mice. This finding definitelyestablished the critical role of the microbiota enzymatic activities in generating TFDG-derived metabolites. These compounds are the microbial metabolites of TFDG through the cleavage of its galloyl groups. Human colon plays host to a highly complex microbial ecosystem, at concentrations of 1012 microorganisms per gram of gut content [14]. Using in vitro fecal batch fermentation, we found that TF, TF3G, TF39G, and GA are also the microbial metabolites of TFDG in human. In addition, we also identified PG as the metabolite of TFDG, TF3G, TF39G, and GA by human microbiota. Furthermore, we directly demonstrated that pure bacterial strains (Lactobacillus plantarum 299v and Bacillus subtilis) are capable to metabolize TFDG into PG, GA, TF, TF3G and TF39G. Both L. plantarum and B. subtilis can be 23727046 considered as gut commensals. Several studies have shown that L. plantarum, although commonly referred as a probiotic, could colonize the human intestine [23?6]. Johansson and co-workers have isolated this bacterium from jejunal and rectal biopsies 11 days after the original administration in 11 of 13 individuals [24]. It has been suggested that the human gastrointestinal tract can adapt to harbor this species as part of the normal microbiota after continuous exposure to it [23]. B. subtilis has been isolated from human ileum biopsies as well as from fecal samples [27]. Studies have also shown that L. plantarum has the capacity to metabolize the galloylated polyphenols from grape seeds to gallic acid and pyrogallol [18], and B. subtilis has a large spectrum of esterases that hydrolyze various esters [19?1]. However, it is still unknownMicrobial Metabolites of TheaflavinsFigure 4. HPLC-ECD chromatograms of microbial metabolites of GA after incubation with human fecal bacteria (A ); and MS/MS (negative ion) spectra of M1 and authentic PG (D). A, B and C represent the three human volunteers, respectively. GA: gallic acid; and PG: pyrogallol. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051001.gwhether these enzymes can metabolize theaflavin esters. Our study demonstrates, for the first time, the capacity of L. plantarum and B. subtilis to metabolize theaflavin mono- and di-gallate to TF, gallic acid and pyrogallol. Our results on the microbi.

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