Olymerization, we employed the drug Latrunculin B (Lat B) that scavenges

Olymerization, we employed the drug Latrunculin B (Lat B) that scavenges actin monomers and deHexaconazole biological activity stabilizes actin cytoskeletal organization. In these experiments, myotubes were serum starved and either leftNexilin Binds and Regulates IRSFigure 2. Spatial 22948146 distribution of nexilin in L6 skeletal muscle cells. A) L6 myotubes were serum starved (basal) or stimulated with 100 nM insulin as indicated and then fixed, permeabilized and incubated with anti-nexilin abs, Cy5-conjugated secondary antibodies (green) and rhodaminephalloidin (red). Images were obtained on a Zeiss LSM510 laser scanning confocal microscope; B) Serum depleted L6 myotubes were pre-incubated with or without Latrunculin B (LatB) and subsequently stimulated with 100 nM insulin for 30 minutes. Cells were stained as in A); C) L6 myotubes were Docosahexaenoyl ethanolamide biological activity treated as in B) and processed for visualization using phospho-Ser473 Akt abs (green) and rhodamine-phalloidin (red). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055634.guntreated or incubated with Lat B for 20 min. The cells were then incubated in the absence or presence of insulin for 30 min. As shown in Figure 2B, Lat B pretreatment prevented insulinmediated actin remodeling and resulted in complete dispersal of nexilin. Moreover, disassembly of the actin cytoskeleton coincided with diminished Akt activation as determined by the intensity ofthe Ser 473 Akt phosphorylation signal (Fig. 2C). These results suggest that the spatial patterning of nexilin is linked to actin remodeling induced by insulin. We next tested the effect of Lat B treatment on IRS1-nexilin interactions. Interestingly, while exposure of L6 myotubes to Lat B was without effect on insulin-induced IRS1 tyrosine phosphory-Nexilin Binds and Regulates IRSFigure 3. Insulin-induced dissociation of IRS1/nexilin complex is dependent on F-actin remodeling. Left panel, IRS1 was immunoprecipitated from L6 myotubes that were either starved or insulin stimulated (100 nM) for the indicated times. Immune complexes were probed with anti-phosphotyrosine 4G10 or nexilin abs. WCL, whole cell lysates; Right Panel, Latrunculin B (20 mM, 20 min) or Jaspakinolide (2 mM, 30 min) treatment of L6 myotubes is without effect on the phosphorylation status of IRS1 but inhibits insulin-induced IRS1/nexilin disassembly. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055634.glation, Lat B treatment blocked the disassembly of the IRS1/ nexilin complex in response to insulin, suggesting that efficient dissociation of this signaling complex is dependent on dynamic 15755315 reorganization of the actin network (Fig. 3). This result prompted the assessment of actin filament stabilization on IRS1-nexilin interactions. To this end, jasplakinolide, which stabilizes F-actin filaments by inhibiting filament disassembly was used to treat L6 myotubes at the end of the starvation period. As with Lat B treatment, jasplakinolide pre-treatment had no effect on IRS1 tyrosine phosphorylation but was seen to mitigate insulin-induced disassociation of the IRS1/nexilin complex. Together, these results are consistent with the notion that insulin-elicited actin remodeling dynamically regulates IRS1?nexilin interactions. To study the functional requirement for nexilin in insulindependent signaling in skeletal muscle cells we began by assessing the effects of siRNA knockdown of nexilin (siNex) on the tyrosine phosphorylation status of IRS1 in response to insulin. As shown in Figure 4A disassembly of the IRS1/nexilin signaling complex correlated temporally with induction of IRS1.Olymerization, we employed the drug Latrunculin B (Lat B) that scavenges actin monomers and destabilizes actin cytoskeletal organization. In these experiments, myotubes were serum starved and either leftNexilin Binds and Regulates IRSFigure 2. Spatial 22948146 distribution of nexilin in L6 skeletal muscle cells. A) L6 myotubes were serum starved (basal) or stimulated with 100 nM insulin as indicated and then fixed, permeabilized and incubated with anti-nexilin abs, Cy5-conjugated secondary antibodies (green) and rhodaminephalloidin (red). Images were obtained on a Zeiss LSM510 laser scanning confocal microscope; B) Serum depleted L6 myotubes were pre-incubated with or without Latrunculin B (LatB) and subsequently stimulated with 100 nM insulin for 30 minutes. Cells were stained as in A); C) L6 myotubes were treated as in B) and processed for visualization using phospho-Ser473 Akt abs (green) and rhodamine-phalloidin (red). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055634.guntreated or incubated with Lat B for 20 min. The cells were then incubated in the absence or presence of insulin for 30 min. As shown in Figure 2B, Lat B pretreatment prevented insulinmediated actin remodeling and resulted in complete dispersal of nexilin. Moreover, disassembly of the actin cytoskeleton coincided with diminished Akt activation as determined by the intensity ofthe Ser 473 Akt phosphorylation signal (Fig. 2C). These results suggest that the spatial patterning of nexilin is linked to actin remodeling induced by insulin. We next tested the effect of Lat B treatment on IRS1-nexilin interactions. Interestingly, while exposure of L6 myotubes to Lat B was without effect on insulin-induced IRS1 tyrosine phosphory-Nexilin Binds and Regulates IRSFigure 3. Insulin-induced dissociation of IRS1/nexilin complex is dependent on F-actin remodeling. Left panel, IRS1 was immunoprecipitated from L6 myotubes that were either starved or insulin stimulated (100 nM) for the indicated times. Immune complexes were probed with anti-phosphotyrosine 4G10 or nexilin abs. WCL, whole cell lysates; Right Panel, Latrunculin B (20 mM, 20 min) or Jaspakinolide (2 mM, 30 min) treatment of L6 myotubes is without effect on the phosphorylation status of IRS1 but inhibits insulin-induced IRS1/nexilin disassembly. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055634.glation, Lat B treatment blocked the disassembly of the IRS1/ nexilin complex in response to insulin, suggesting that efficient dissociation of this signaling complex is dependent on dynamic 15755315 reorganization of the actin network (Fig. 3). This result prompted the assessment of actin filament stabilization on IRS1-nexilin interactions. To this end, jasplakinolide, which stabilizes F-actin filaments by inhibiting filament disassembly was used to treat L6 myotubes at the end of the starvation period. As with Lat B treatment, jasplakinolide pre-treatment had no effect on IRS1 tyrosine phosphorylation but was seen to mitigate insulin-induced disassociation of the IRS1/nexilin complex. Together, these results are consistent with the notion that insulin-elicited actin remodeling dynamically regulates IRS1?nexilin interactions. To study the functional requirement for nexilin in insulindependent signaling in skeletal muscle cells we began by assessing the effects of siRNA knockdown of nexilin (siNex) on the tyrosine phosphorylation status of IRS1 in response to insulin. As shown in Figure 4A disassembly of the IRS1/nexilin signaling complex correlated temporally with induction of IRS1.

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