Rism and peripheral reconstitution were analyzed by flow cytometry eight weeks

Rism and peripheral reconstitution were analyzed by flow cytometry eight weeks after bone marrow D as housekeeping gene control. B, The mRNA expression of TRPCs transplantation. The percentages of gated populations are shown. (TIF)AcknowledgmentsWe thank K. Kubota for her secretarial assistance, M. Ishiguro, T. Sugimoto, K. Shiozaki, and C. Tada for their technical assistance, R. Muramatsu, T. Yamashita, G. Beck, H. Sumi-Akamaru and M. Luftig for their advice.Expression level of BAFF and BAFF-R in the spinal cord of mSOD1 transgenic mice at different age. mSOD1 transgenic mice were sacrificed at the age of 70 and 130 days, and RNA was isolated from homogenized flash-frozen spinal cords. BAFF and BAFF-R expression level was analyzed by RT-qPCR experiments. n = 4 for mSOD1 mice at 70 days of age and n = 3 for mSOD1 mice at 130 days of age. The data are presented as the mean 6 s.e.m. (TIF)Figure Of Cn infection was 2?:1 males:females [4?]. Both prior to the HIV SAuthor ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: ST TY SS HK. Performed the experiments: ST TK. Analyzed the data: ST TY YN TO. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: TY YN TO HM. Wrote the paper: ST TY TO HK.
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that can be obtained by diet but is mainly synthesized from 7-dehydrocholesterol in an UV-Bdependent reaction in the skin [1]. In the liver, vitamin D3 is then further converted into 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), which is the major storage form of vitamin D. In the kidney, 25(OH)D3 is further 1a-hydroxylated to yield its hormonal form, 1,25dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), which acts as a ligand to the transcription factor vitamin D receptor (VDR) [2?]. Serum 25(OH)D3 concentration is the widely accepted indicator of the vitamin D status for the human body [5]. Vitamin D deficiency is defined as a serum 25(OH)D3 concentration of below 50 nM (20 ng/ml) [6] and affects more than 1 billion humans, i.e. it is one of most common health risks [7]. Vitamin D deficiency is caused by the lack of adequate vitamin D in diet and an insufficient exposure to sun [8]. The musculoskeletal consequences of inadequate vitamin D concentrations are well established and include rickets in children and osteomalacia and fractures in adults [9]. A growing number of other diseases, such as type 1 and type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancers of the breast, prostate and colon, have also been linked to vitamin D insufficiency, but causal associations have not yet been fully established [10?4]. Incontrast, high vitamin D concentrations can cause overcalcification of bones, soft tissues, heart and kidneys leading to kidney stones and hypertension [15], but these side effects occur only at 25(OH)D3 concentrations above 240 nM [16]. The classical, physiological role of 1,25(OH)2D3 and its receptor is the regulation of calcium and phosphate homeostasis and bone mineralization [17], but there is also a lot of evidence that VDR ligands have anti-proliferative and immuno-modulatory functions [18,19]. This fits both with the widespread expression of the VDR and the above described consequences of vitamin D deficiency. Transcriptome-wide analysis indicated that per cell type between 200 and 600 genes are primary targets of vitamin D [20?3]. Since most 23977191 of these genes respond to vitamin D in a cell-specific fashion, the total number of vitamin D targets in the human genome is far higher than 1,000. This is supported by the genome-wide view on VDR binding sites in human lymphoblastoids [20], THP-1 human monocytic leukemia cells [21] and LS180 human colorectal cancer cells [24] o.Rism and peripheral reconstitution were analyzed by flow cytometry eight weeks after bone marrow transplantation. The percentages of gated populations are shown. (TIF)AcknowledgmentsWe thank K. Kubota for her secretarial assistance, M. Ishiguro, T. Sugimoto, K. Shiozaki, and C. Tada for their technical assistance, R. Muramatsu, T. Yamashita, G. Beck, H. Sumi-Akamaru and M. Luftig for their advice.Expression level of BAFF and BAFF-R in the spinal cord of mSOD1 transgenic mice at different age. mSOD1 transgenic mice were sacrificed at the age of 70 and 130 days, and RNA was isolated from homogenized flash-frozen spinal cords. BAFF and BAFF-R expression level was analyzed by RT-qPCR experiments. n = 4 for mSOD1 mice at 70 days of age and n = 3 for mSOD1 mice at 130 days of age. The data are presented as the mean 6 s.e.m. (TIF)Figure SAuthor ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: ST TY SS HK. Performed the experiments: ST TK. Analyzed the data: ST TY YN TO. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: TY YN TO HM. Wrote the paper: ST TY TO HK.
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that can be obtained by diet but is mainly synthesized from 7-dehydrocholesterol in an UV-Bdependent reaction in the skin [1]. In the liver, vitamin D3 is then further converted into 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), which is the major storage form of vitamin D. In the kidney, 25(OH)D3 is further 1a-hydroxylated to yield its hormonal form, 1,25dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), which acts as a ligand to the transcription factor vitamin D receptor (VDR) [2?]. Serum 25(OH)D3 concentration is the widely accepted indicator of the vitamin D status for the human body [5]. Vitamin D deficiency is defined as a serum 25(OH)D3 concentration of below 50 nM (20 ng/ml) [6] and affects more than 1 billion humans, i.e. it is one of most common health risks [7]. Vitamin D deficiency is caused by the lack of adequate vitamin D in diet and an insufficient exposure to sun [8]. The musculoskeletal consequences of inadequate vitamin D concentrations are well established and include rickets in children and osteomalacia and fractures in adults [9]. A growing number of other diseases, such as type 1 and type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancers of the breast, prostate and colon, have also been linked to vitamin D insufficiency, but causal associations have not yet been fully established [10?4]. Incontrast, high vitamin D concentrations can cause overcalcification of bones, soft tissues, heart and kidneys leading to kidney stones and hypertension [15], but these side effects occur only at 25(OH)D3 concentrations above 240 nM [16]. The classical, physiological role of 1,25(OH)2D3 and its receptor is the regulation of calcium and phosphate homeostasis and bone mineralization [17], but there is also a lot of evidence that VDR ligands have anti-proliferative and immuno-modulatory functions [18,19]. This fits both with the widespread expression of the VDR and the above described consequences of vitamin D deficiency. Transcriptome-wide analysis indicated that per cell type between 200 and 600 genes are primary targets of vitamin D [20?3]. Since most 23977191 of these genes respond to vitamin D in a cell-specific fashion, the total number of vitamin D targets in the human genome is far higher than 1,000. This is supported by the genome-wide view on VDR binding sites in human lymphoblastoids [20], THP-1 human monocytic leukemia cells [21] and LS180 human colorectal cancer cells [24] o.

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