Visceral, and subcutaneous fat volumes in the resveratrol-enriched

Visceral, and subcutaneous fat volumes in the resveratrol-enriched 1379592 rice group (RS18) were 21.55 , 16.33 , and 3.10 , respectively, which were significantly lower than the fat volumes from the HFD control (25.43 , 20.02 , and 3.83 , respectively) (Figure 5B). Representative images clearly indicated that the total, visceral and subcutaneous fat accumulation volumes were lowest in the RS18 group compared with the other treatments (Figure 5C). The most important finding from this experiment was the synergistic effect of Dongjin rice and transgenic resveratrol in the RS18 group compared with treatment by resveratrol supplementation or Dongjin rice alone. The resveratrol-enriched Dongjin rice, RS18, was thus found to be as effective at treating metabolic syndrome and related diseases as typical pharmaceutical drugs for these disorders in reducing the blood glucose, LDL/total cholesterol, or body weight. Hence, resveratrol-enriched rice is a potentially feasible and viable choice to treat most, if not all, aspects of metabolic syndrome and related diseases. The central nervous system controls nutrient levels in an effort to maintain metabolic homeostasis through the feedback and crosstalk of many organs [21]. In the brain, Sirt1, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacetylase, is a key regulator of the energy homeostasis involved in glucose and lipid metabolism [22?4]. To examine the effect of transgenic ricegrains on the level of Sirt1 protein, we treated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells with ethanol extracts from the grains of RS18 (50 and 100 mg/mL). Western blot analysis indicated that the levels of Sirt1 SPI 1005 site protein were higher in the treated cells than in untreated cells. Similar increases in Sirt1 protein were observed in cells treated with 100 mM resveratrol (Figure 6A). Moreover, mice fed a HFD supplemented with transgenic grain (RS18) had higher Sirt1 expression in the brain, liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissues. Among these tissues, Sirt1 expression in the liver of the RS18-fed mice was significantly increased in comparison to that observed in the control mice fed a HFD alone (Figure 6B). A previous study reported that glucose and blood SIS3 site cholesterol levels were reduced in Sirt1 transgenic mice [25]. Thus, these results suggest that treatment with resveratrol-enriched transgenic grains may improve metabolic syndrome and related diseases associated with the disturbance of hepatic lipid metabolism and of glucose and lipid homeostasis by upregulating Sirt1 expression.ConclusionsAfter the etiological agent of the French Paradox was identified as resveratrol [26], the creation of transgenic cereal plants that accumulate resveratrol in their grains has been a major research objective. Although transgenic cereal plants have been produced with the aim of accumulating resveratrol in their grains, resveratrol was only detected at low levels in the leaves and stems of the previously created transgenic plants [19]. In this study, we report the first successful creation of rice with resveratrol-enriched grains, using the approach of validating the expression of the transgene at each step. Because the resveratrol-enriched rice was created usingTransgenic Rice with Resveratrol-Enriched GrainsFigure 2. The identification of resveratrol and piceid in the grains of wild-type Dongjin and transgenic rice using HPLC. (A) A standard mixture of piceid (P) and resveratrol (R). (B) Wild-type Dongjin rice. (C) Transgenic Dongjin rice RS18.Visceral, and subcutaneous fat volumes in the resveratrol-enriched 1379592 rice group (RS18) were 21.55 , 16.33 , and 3.10 , respectively, which were significantly lower than the fat volumes from the HFD control (25.43 , 20.02 , and 3.83 , respectively) (Figure 5B). Representative images clearly indicated that the total, visceral and subcutaneous fat accumulation volumes were lowest in the RS18 group compared with the other treatments (Figure 5C). The most important finding from this experiment was the synergistic effect of Dongjin rice and transgenic resveratrol in the RS18 group compared with treatment by resveratrol supplementation or Dongjin rice alone. The resveratrol-enriched Dongjin rice, RS18, was thus found to be as effective at treating metabolic syndrome and related diseases as typical pharmaceutical drugs for these disorders in reducing the blood glucose, LDL/total cholesterol, or body weight. Hence, resveratrol-enriched rice is a potentially feasible and viable choice to treat most, if not all, aspects of metabolic syndrome and related diseases. The central nervous system controls nutrient levels in an effort to maintain metabolic homeostasis through the feedback and crosstalk of many organs [21]. In the brain, Sirt1, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacetylase, is a key regulator of the energy homeostasis involved in glucose and lipid metabolism [22?4]. To examine the effect of transgenic ricegrains on the level of Sirt1 protein, we treated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells with ethanol extracts from the grains of RS18 (50 and 100 mg/mL). Western blot analysis indicated that the levels of Sirt1 protein were higher in the treated cells than in untreated cells. Similar increases in Sirt1 protein were observed in cells treated with 100 mM resveratrol (Figure 6A). Moreover, mice fed a HFD supplemented with transgenic grain (RS18) had higher Sirt1 expression in the brain, liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissues. Among these tissues, Sirt1 expression in the liver of the RS18-fed mice was significantly increased in comparison to that observed in the control mice fed a HFD alone (Figure 6B). A previous study reported that glucose and blood cholesterol levels were reduced in Sirt1 transgenic mice [25]. Thus, these results suggest that treatment with resveratrol-enriched transgenic grains may improve metabolic syndrome and related diseases associated with the disturbance of hepatic lipid metabolism and of glucose and lipid homeostasis by upregulating Sirt1 expression.ConclusionsAfter the etiological agent of the French Paradox was identified as resveratrol [26], the creation of transgenic cereal plants that accumulate resveratrol in their grains has been a major research objective. Although transgenic cereal plants have been produced with the aim of accumulating resveratrol in their grains, resveratrol was only detected at low levels in the leaves and stems of the previously created transgenic plants [19]. In this study, we report the first successful creation of rice with resveratrol-enriched grains, using the approach of validating the expression of the transgene at each step. Because the resveratrol-enriched rice was created usingTransgenic Rice with Resveratrol-Enriched GrainsFigure 2. The identification of resveratrol and piceid in the grains of wild-type Dongjin and transgenic rice using HPLC. (A) A standard mixture of piceid (P) and resveratrol (R). (B) Wild-type Dongjin rice. (C) Transgenic Dongjin rice RS18.