T, NL-1051.TD12.ecto and a control C/R HIV-1 variant, NL-SF162.ecto. We found that CD25, CD38, and HLA-DR expression by p24+ CD4 T cells did not differ in purchase LED 209 tissues infected by these respective viruses. CD25 was expressed on respectively 20610 and 2269.7 (n = 3, p = 0.72) of cells infected by the HIV-1 variant NL-1051.TD12.ecto and the HIV-1 variant NL-SF162.ecto. For CD38, these fractions constituted respectively 33.4610.7 and 40.4610.3 (n = 3, p = 0.72), while for HLA-DR, these fractions were 6.0362.5 and 8.7563.8 (n = 3, p = 0.38), respectively. These results were confirmed when we analyzed 22948146 the expression of activation markers in the group of tissues infected with T/F HIV-1 variants as compared to the group infected with C/R HIV-1 variants. In tissues infected with C/R HIV-1 variants, CD25, CD38, CD69, CD95, and HLA-DR were respectively expressed by 15.0362.67 , 24.2764.25 , 78.1762.77 , 80.1569.14 , and 7.6161.58 of the p24+ CD4 T cells. In tissues infected with T/F viruses, these markers were expressed by 17.4463.57 , 28.3965.26 , 75.0464.83 , 80.16612.12 , and 5.861.58 of p24+ CD4 T cells. In order to distinguish the effects of viral infection from the normal variation of marker expression between donor tissues, for each matched tissue, we calculated the level of expression in infected (p24+) CD4 T cells as the percent of the level of expression in the matched non nfected tissue. This analysis revealed that, in tissues infected with C/R viruses, 140611.7 (Itacitinib manufacturer median 127.23 , IQR [100.8 , 174.4 ], n = 17, p = 0.004) of HIV-1 nfected CD4 T cells expressed CD25 compared to those in control uninfected tissues. Similarly, larger fractions of HIV infected T cells expressed the activation markers CD38, CD95 and HLADR: respectively 153631.2 (n = 17, p = 0.0253), 123614.2 (n = 9, p = 0.012) and 203633.72 (n = 17, p = 0.003) relative to these fractions in donor matched control tissues. In contrast, there was no difference between CD69-expression in HIV-1 infected CD4 T cells as compared to cells in uninfected control tissues (n = 9, p = 0.055). In tissues infected with T/F viruses, our analysis revealed that the fraction of HIV-infected CD4 T cells was enriched in cells expressing CD38 and HLA-DR (p = 0.007), but not CD25, CD69, or CD95 (p.0.28). HIV-1 nfected T cells expressing CD38 and HLA-DR constituted, respectively 161620.9 (median 144.23 , IQR [121.8 , 211.5 ], n = 11, p = 0.0068) and 277.79685.17 (median 191.21 , IQR [95.5 , 348.57 ], n = 11, p = 0.0244) of the number CD4 T cells expressing these markers in control tissues. In tissues inoculated either with T/F or C/R HIV-1 variants and treated with 3TC, there was no increase in the fractions of CD4 T cells expressing activation markers compared to donor-matched control tissues (p = 0.074, p = 0.91). Infection by both C/R and T/F HIV-1 variants resulted in activation of not 15755315 only productively infected (p24+) but also of uninfected (p242) bystander CD4 T cells, as shown by the higher expression of some of the tested markers by the latter cells compared to their expression by CD4 T cells in uninfected tissues. This difference reached statistical significance for CD25. However, this activation of uninfected bystander CDTransmission of Founder HIV-1 to Cervical ExplantsFigure 1. Replication of various C/R and T/F HIV-1 variants in human cervical tissue ex vivo. Donor-matched human cervical tissue blocks were infected ex-vivo with C/R and T/F viruses in presence or absence of 3TC.T, NL-1051.TD12.ecto and a control C/R HIV-1 variant, NL-SF162.ecto. We found that CD25, CD38, and HLA-DR expression by p24+ CD4 T cells did not differ in tissues infected by these respective viruses. CD25 was expressed on respectively 20610 and 2269.7 (n = 3, p = 0.72) of cells infected by the HIV-1 variant NL-1051.TD12.ecto and the HIV-1 variant NL-SF162.ecto. For CD38, these fractions constituted respectively 33.4610.7 and 40.4610.3 (n = 3, p = 0.72), while for HLA-DR, these fractions were 6.0362.5 and 8.7563.8 (n = 3, p = 0.38), respectively. These results were confirmed when we analyzed 22948146 the expression of activation markers in the group of tissues infected with T/F HIV-1 variants as compared to the group infected with C/R HIV-1 variants. In tissues infected with C/R HIV-1 variants, CD25, CD38, CD69, CD95, and HLA-DR were respectively expressed by 15.0362.67 , 24.2764.25 , 78.1762.77 , 80.1569.14 , and 7.6161.58 of the p24+ CD4 T cells. In tissues infected with T/F viruses, these markers were expressed by 17.4463.57 , 28.3965.26 , 75.0464.83 , 80.16612.12 , and 5.861.58 of p24+ CD4 T cells. In order to distinguish the effects of viral infection from the normal variation of marker expression between donor tissues, for each matched tissue, we calculated the level of expression in infected (p24+) CD4 T cells as the percent of the level of expression in the matched non nfected tissue. This analysis revealed that, in tissues infected with C/R viruses, 140611.7 (median 127.23 , IQR [100.8 , 174.4 ], n = 17, p = 0.004) of HIV-1 nfected CD4 T cells expressed CD25 compared to those in control uninfected tissues. Similarly, larger fractions of HIV infected T cells expressed the activation markers CD38, CD95 and HLADR: respectively 153631.2 (n = 17, p = 0.0253), 123614.2 (n = 9, p = 0.012) and 203633.72 (n = 17, p = 0.003) relative to these fractions in donor matched control tissues. In contrast, there was no difference between CD69-expression in HIV-1 infected CD4 T cells as compared to cells in uninfected control tissues (n = 9, p = 0.055). In tissues infected with T/F viruses, our analysis revealed that the fraction of HIV-infected CD4 T cells was enriched in cells expressing CD38 and HLA-DR (p = 0.007), but not CD25, CD69, or CD95 (p.0.28). HIV-1 nfected T cells expressing CD38 and HLA-DR constituted, respectively 161620.9 (median 144.23 , IQR [121.8 , 211.5 ], n = 11, p = 0.0068) and 277.79685.17 (median 191.21 , IQR [95.5 , 348.57 ], n = 11, p = 0.0244) of the number CD4 T cells expressing these markers in control tissues. In tissues inoculated either with T/F or C/R HIV-1 variants and treated with 3TC, there was no increase in the fractions of CD4 T cells expressing activation markers compared to donor-matched control tissues (p = 0.074, p = 0.91). Infection by both C/R and T/F HIV-1 variants resulted in activation of not 15755315 only productively infected (p24+) but also of uninfected (p242) bystander CD4 T cells, as shown by the higher expression of some of the tested markers by the latter cells compared to their expression by CD4 T cells in uninfected tissues. This difference reached statistical significance for CD25. However, this activation of uninfected bystander CDTransmission of Founder HIV-1 to Cervical ExplantsFigure 1. Replication of various C/R and T/F HIV-1 variants in human cervical tissue ex vivo. Donor-matched human cervical tissue blocks were infected ex-vivo with C/R and T/F viruses in presence or absence of 3TC.