Control animals at all stages displayed a normal glial population with few or no apoptotic nuclei

identify potential protein pairs that possibly interact, and evaluate these targets considering their importance for survival of the pathogen. The domain fusion analysis has already been successfully applied to the specific pathogen to identify protein-protein interactions that can be specifically inhibited, making the pathogen unable to reproduce, or to survive, within the host organism. Recently, a software tool to make this process automated has been published so the analysis can now be performed with more organisms. Overall, 19 organisms, both pathogenic and nonpathogenic for humans, were used in this study Gene Fusion Analysis in Trypanosome brucei to compare with T. brucei in order to have more results that can be approached pharmacologically. Following the identification of potential interacting protein pairs, we used phylogenetic trees to determine the evolutionary fate of each protein pair associated with a putative PPI, in order to focus on protein pair candidates that are fused in the host organism. Theoretically, inhibiting PPIs that are unique to the parasite and not shared by the host, allows us to make a significant step towards the absence of severe side effects, if a future drug is produced to block the specific interaction. To perform the analysis, we used a workflow that included: a) The automatic identification of fusion events which can then be assigned to the respective PPIs, through the SAFE platform with the following parameters: removal of duplicate proteins from the proteome: 85%, minimum length of a functional domain: 70AA, minimum BLAST % identity per domain: 27%, minimum fused protein coverage: 70%, maximum domain overlap: 0AA, multiple protein results: 5 proteins, e-value cutoff: 91023. These parameters were set to these numbers as they yield better quality results as observed from previous analyses of this kind, and were therefore implemented here as well. The backward BLAST process, used as a confirmation step for the fusion events. According to this process, the two 2 c) b) separate proteins found to participate in a fusion event, must correspond to the fused protein as the best reciprocal BLAST hit. To study the evolutionary history of the protein pairs, the identified fused protein was used as a BLAST query to search for homologs against the major organism lineages in order to observe the evolutionary pattern of each fusion event. Within each organism family group, we not only checked the BLAST hit with the highest identity value and the lowest E-value threshold, but collected data about all the top hits. These results were then mapped 26506265 onto a schematic phylogenetic tree, showing the relationships MedChemExpress Sunset Yellow FCF between these organism groups. The state of each protein in Naegleria gruberi, a relatively close neighbor to T. brucei, was also checked in order to better refine the evolutionary history of each event within the excavates, and to distinguish kinetoplastid-specific events. In certain organisms, both fused and separate configurations of the proteins were found with equivalent scores, 22634634 and these are marked with `f/s’. This analysis also allowed us to focus on the results that appear fused in the host organism. If a protein pair is separated in T. brucei but fused in the host, and if the predicted protein-protein interaction is crucial to the parasite’s survival, designing an inhibitor for the protein-protein interaction would specifically target the parasite and not the host protein; this marks the identified in

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