PQ was measured from the onset of P wave to the onset of the QRS wave

Sult1e1. The enrichment of H3K9me2 in most down-regulated and unchanged loci was increased by Hnf4a deficiency, whereas the upregulated loci were not affected. In contrast, H3K9me3 was not changed in the majority of loci investigated, with the exception of increases in the Cyp2c44 and Ugt2b36 promoters in Hnf4a-LivKO mice. Most of the 21363929 down-regulated and unchanged genes, except Ugt2b1 and Ugt2b36, were enriched more for H3K27me3 in Hnf4a-LivKO than in wild-type livers, whereas the up-regulated gene loci were not affected. In regard to H3K4ac, Hnf4a deficiency increased its enrichment at the majority of tested loci regardless of up-, down-regulated, or unchanged genes, with the exception of loci in the Defb1 promoter, the Gadd45b promoter, and Slc47a1 exon1. The GSK-126 price promoter of housekeeping gene Gapdh was used as a negative reference, which expectedly had no changes in the six histone modifications in Hnf4a-LivKO mice. Collectively, Hnf4a deficiency affects H3K4me2, H3K4me3, H3K9me2, H3K9me3, H3K27me3 and H3K4 acetylation, to different degree, at the loci of these tested genes.Among these loci, the alterations at Cyp2c44 exon1, Ugt2b1 exon1 and Ugt2b1 exon2 are significant, with the fold of 0.2, 0.5 and 0.3, respectively. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084925.t001 including SET domain containing 7, mixed-lineage leukemia 3, WD repeat domain 5, euchromatic histone lysine N-methyltransferase 2, suppressor of variegation 3-9 homolog 1, enhancer of zeste homolog 2, histone deacetylase 3, Hdac6, DNA methyltransferase 1, tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 2, Tet3, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1, Idh2, and Idh3a which are important for dynamically laying down and/or removing modifications to DNA and histones. Hnf4a deficiency significantly induced mRNA expression of Setd7, Kmt2c, Ehmt2, Ezh2, Dnmt1, and Tet3, but not Wdr5, Suv39h1, Hdac3, Hdac6, Tet2, Idh1, Idh2, and Idh3a. In addition, the expression of Hist1h1c encoding H1.2 and H3f3b encoding H3.3 histone was induced, whereas the expression of Hist1h1d encoding H1.3 was not altered in Hnf4a-LivKO livers, suggesting that Hnf4a possibly plays a role in the regulation of the histone H1 isoform and H3.3 variant. Discussion In the present study, we successfully developed the improved MeDIP-, hMeDIP-, and ChIP-qPCR assays to elucidate the impact of Hnf4a deficiency on the histone modifications as well as DNA methylation and 5-hydroxymethylation in the female mouse livers. Hnf4a deficiency markedly alters histone modifications including H3K4me2, H3K4me3, H3K9me2, H3K27me3 and H3K4ac, 17318643 whereas its impacts on H3K9me3 and DNA methyla- tion are not as extensive as the preceding modifications. Western blot analyses of the histone modifications further confirm the findings in the ChIP assay. Concomitant to the increase in DNA methylation at certain loci, 5-hydroxymethylation of the corresponding loci decreases due to Hnf4a deficiency. The marked changes in hepatic epigenetic signatures in Hnf4a-LivKO mice are associated with changes in hepatic mRNA expression of epigenetic modifiers. To elucidate the epigenetic mechanism of regulation of hepatic gene expression by HNF4a, we first established validated external controls for MeDIP-, hMeDIP-, and ChIP-qPCR assays to normalize the variations introduced during the assays. A previous study suggests that conventional housekeeping genes may not be an optimal normalizer for enrichment calculation in MeDIP assay because the methylation status of these genes may be altered under cer