Ting HCFC1, KHSRP and FLNA, multifocal

Ting HCFC1, KHSRP and FLNA, multifocal 1516647 tumors were detected in some of the animals (Figure 3). The frequency of multifocal tumor was not high, occurring in 3 out of 10, 2 out of 10, and 3 out of 10 animals for HCFC1, KHSRP and FLNA cell lines, respectively. Multiple tumors were observed clearly separated from each other. The fact that some tumors were observed in the left hemisphere suggests that this separation is highly unlikely to be caused by technical reasons related to the injection procedure, rather it is a result of cell migration and amplification from the primary tumor. The fact that separation is not observed in any of the animals injected with mock transduced cells indicates that it is a result of gene downregulation, suggesting a role for genes HCFC1, KHSRP and FLNA in GBM cell migration in vivo.Association of the gene expression with clinical outcomeTumor cell invasiveness directly contributes to the poor prognosis of GBM. In order to test whether the genes identified in this study are possibly involved in the tumor progression in patients, we sought to identify whether there is any association of the genes with the clinical outcome of GBM patients. For this study we used the most recent TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) database, which contains data from 548 GBM patients. Interestingly, high expression levels of HCFC1 and KHSRP were observed for patients who survived long after surgery. Specifically, 70 of the patients who survived more than 3 years express higher than median level of HCFC1 as detected by the two MedChemExpress GDC-0917 probes targeting the gene. When the patients surviving more than 5 years were analyzed, even higher percentages were observed, with 91.1 and 83.3 of the patients above the median level as detected by the two probes, respectively. For KHSRP, approximately 70 of patients survived more than 3 or 5 years, as detected by 2 of the 3 probes targeting the gene (Table 2 and Figure S4). Statistical analysis showed that the phenomenon is significant, supporting a possible role for HCFC1 and KHSRP in disease progression and suggesting that they may be used as novel prognostic markers for GBM patients. There are evidences suggesting that decreasing the migratory capabilities of tumor cells may sensitize them to cytotoxic reagents [9,10]. Considering that most of the long survival patients received chemotherapy (87 of the patients survived longer than 3 years and 92 of the patients survived longer than 5 years), we sought to test if the PF-299804 high-expression of the genes can affect the chemotherapy efficiency. Cytotoxicity was measured every 48 hours over 6 days for the overexpressing U87 cells treated with 20 mM of temozolomide (TMZ). The result (Figure 5) showed that one of the cell line which overexpresses HCFC1 had enhanced cytotoxicity response at all the time points tested, while the other cell line overexpressing FLNA was observed to be sensitized to TMZ after 48 hours only. This result raises the possibility that the long survival may be not only caused by the decreasing of tumor cell migration, but also the enhancement of the chemotherapy efficiency, although more evidence is needed to draw the final conclusion.Validation of the gene effects with other GBM cells and secondary shRNAsThe above screening and validation experiments were all carried out on U87 GBM cell line. In order to test whether the effects of HCFC1, KHSRP, and FLNA are general to GBM cells, two different GBM cell lines, A172 and LN-229, were used in the.Ting HCFC1, KHSRP and FLNA, multifocal 1516647 tumors were detected in some of the animals (Figure 3). The frequency of multifocal tumor was not high, occurring in 3 out of 10, 2 out of 10, and 3 out of 10 animals for HCFC1, KHSRP and FLNA cell lines, respectively. Multiple tumors were observed clearly separated from each other. The fact that some tumors were observed in the left hemisphere suggests that this separation is highly unlikely to be caused by technical reasons related to the injection procedure, rather it is a result of cell migration and amplification from the primary tumor. The fact that separation is not observed in any of the animals injected with mock transduced cells indicates that it is a result of gene downregulation, suggesting a role for genes HCFC1, KHSRP and FLNA in GBM cell migration in vivo.Association of the gene expression with clinical outcomeTumor cell invasiveness directly contributes to the poor prognosis of GBM. In order to test whether the genes identified in this study are possibly involved in the tumor progression in patients, we sought to identify whether there is any association of the genes with the clinical outcome of GBM patients. For this study we used the most recent TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) database, which contains data from 548 GBM patients. Interestingly, high expression levels of HCFC1 and KHSRP were observed for patients who survived long after surgery. Specifically, 70 of the patients who survived more than 3 years express higher than median level of HCFC1 as detected by the two probes targeting the gene. When the patients surviving more than 5 years were analyzed, even higher percentages were observed, with 91.1 and 83.3 of the patients above the median level as detected by the two probes, respectively. For KHSRP, approximately 70 of patients survived more than 3 or 5 years, as detected by 2 of the 3 probes targeting the gene (Table 2 and Figure S4). Statistical analysis showed that the phenomenon is significant, supporting a possible role for HCFC1 and KHSRP in disease progression and suggesting that they may be used as novel prognostic markers for GBM patients. There are evidences suggesting that decreasing the migratory capabilities of tumor cells may sensitize them to cytotoxic reagents [9,10]. Considering that most of the long survival patients received chemotherapy (87 of the patients survived longer than 3 years and 92 of the patients survived longer than 5 years), we sought to test if the high-expression of the genes can affect the chemotherapy efficiency. Cytotoxicity was measured every 48 hours over 6 days for the overexpressing U87 cells treated with 20 mM of temozolomide (TMZ). The result (Figure 5) showed that one of the cell line which overexpresses HCFC1 had enhanced cytotoxicity response at all the time points tested, while the other cell line overexpressing FLNA was observed to be sensitized to TMZ after 48 hours only. This result raises the possibility that the long survival may be not only caused by the decreasing of tumor cell migration, but also the enhancement of the chemotherapy efficiency, although more evidence is needed to draw the final conclusion.Validation of the gene effects with other GBM cells and secondary shRNAsThe above screening and validation experiments were all carried out on U87 GBM cell line. In order to test whether the effects of HCFC1, KHSRP, and FLNA are general to GBM cells, two different GBM cell lines, A172 and LN-229, were used in the.