(Table 4). Several studies have shown that the exposure of cells to

(Table 4). Several studies have shown that the exposure of cells to an ABT-737 dose inflammatory stimulus (IL-1 or TNF-) strongly down-regulated proteoglycan levels [27,48,52,53]. This reduction might occur via an inhibition of aggrecan mRNA [29] or an IL-1 and TNF–induced activation of proteases like ADAMTSs or MMPs, which in turn cleave proteoglycans [54]. It is noticeable that low CTS (3 or 5 respectively) at several durations counteracted the aggrecan mRNA inhibition [29] and partly restored the synthesis of proteoglycans [48]. This proposes a beneficial effect of certain loading protocols on the cartilage ECM in already inflamed joints. Summing up, the loading duration might be the main stimulus for collagen II and aggrecan mRNA expression. Thereby, within a window of 12 h of loading, chondrocytes increase the mRNA expression, mainly independently of strain magnitude and loading frequency. Thereafter, cells possibly gradually adapt to the altered mechanical environment and down-regulatePLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119816 March 30,11 /Cyclic Tensile Strain and Chondrocyte MetabolismFig 3. Effects of CTS on collagen II and aggrecan mRNA levels. Number of experiments investigating the effects of CTS on collagen II (a) and aggrecan (b) mRNA levels and summary of the effects on these parameters. Results were divided by loading duration (less than 12 h of loading, exactly 12 hours of loading, longer than 12 hours of loading) and studies were separated into: studies that found an increase in mRNA, studies that found no difference relative to EPZ-5676 manufacturer control levels and studies that found a decrease of mRNA relative to control level. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0119816.gPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119816 March 30,12 /Cyclic Tensile Strain and Chondrocyte MetabolismTable 4. Effects of CTS on Proteoglycan synthesis. Loading duration 6h 12 h Strain magnitude 5 23 3 3 3 5 24 h 5 5 5 6 7 7 7 12 17 48 h 72 h 6 20 6 6 20 96 h 6 Frequency 0.17 Hz 0.5 Hz 0.03 Hz 0.5 Hz 2.5 Hz 0.17 Hz 0.17 Hz 0.003 Hz 0.05 Hz 0.05 Hz 0.17 Hz 0.17 Hz 0.5 Hz 0.5 Hz 0.17 Hz 0.05 Hz 0.05 Hz 0.05 Hz 0.05 Hz 0.05 Hz 0.05 Hz Culture plate coating Fibronectin Collagen II Collagen II Collagen II Collagen II Fibronectin Fibronectin Collagen I Pronectin Collagen I Collagen I Fibronectin Collagen II Collagen II Collagen I Collagen I Pronectin Collagen I Pronectin Pronectin Pronectin ” ” #a ” ” Collagen synthesis Proteoglycan synthesis # ” ” # # ” # # ” ” ” # # # # # # # Reference [30] [34] [23] [23] [23] [30] [30] [31] [48] [27] [47] [47] [25] [25] [31] [27] [52] [27] [53] [52] [53]Effects of CTS on total collagen and proteoglycans synthesis, sorted by loading duration # Proteoglycan or collagen synthesis of loaded cells was decreased relative to unloaded cells Proteoglycan or collagen synthesis of loaded cells was unchanged relative to unloaded cells ” Proteoglycan or collagen synthesis of loaded cells was increased relative to unloaded cellsaAssessed as intensitiy of immunostainingdoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0119816.tcollagen II and aggrecan expression. Considering the time delay between gene transcription and protein synthesis, the elevated levels of mRNA within 12 h is reflected at the protein level at later time points: For example, 7 strain and 0.5 Hz increased collagen II mRNA after 12 h [33] and the collagen synthesis after 24 h [25]. And the decrease in aggrecan mRNA when loading lasts longer than 16 h, is in accordance with a reduced proteoglycan sy.(Table 4). Several studies have shown that the exposure of cells to an inflammatory stimulus (IL-1 or TNF-) strongly down-regulated proteoglycan levels [27,48,52,53]. This reduction might occur via an inhibition of aggrecan mRNA [29] or an IL-1 and TNF–induced activation of proteases like ADAMTSs or MMPs, which in turn cleave proteoglycans [54]. It is noticeable that low CTS (3 or 5 respectively) at several durations counteracted the aggrecan mRNA inhibition [29] and partly restored the synthesis of proteoglycans [48]. This proposes a beneficial effect of certain loading protocols on the cartilage ECM in already inflamed joints. Summing up, the loading duration might be the main stimulus for collagen II and aggrecan mRNA expression. Thereby, within a window of 12 h of loading, chondrocytes increase the mRNA expression, mainly independently of strain magnitude and loading frequency. Thereafter, cells possibly gradually adapt to the altered mechanical environment and down-regulatePLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119816 March 30,11 /Cyclic Tensile Strain and Chondrocyte MetabolismFig 3. Effects of CTS on collagen II and aggrecan mRNA levels. Number of experiments investigating the effects of CTS on collagen II (a) and aggrecan (b) mRNA levels and summary of the effects on these parameters. Results were divided by loading duration (less than 12 h of loading, exactly 12 hours of loading, longer than 12 hours of loading) and studies were separated into: studies that found an increase in mRNA, studies that found no difference relative to control levels and studies that found a decrease of mRNA relative to control level. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0119816.gPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119816 March 30,12 /Cyclic Tensile Strain and Chondrocyte MetabolismTable 4. Effects of CTS on Proteoglycan synthesis. Loading duration 6h 12 h Strain magnitude 5 23 3 3 3 5 24 h 5 5 5 6 7 7 7 12 17 48 h 72 h 6 20 6 6 20 96 h 6 Frequency 0.17 Hz 0.5 Hz 0.03 Hz 0.5 Hz 2.5 Hz 0.17 Hz 0.17 Hz 0.003 Hz 0.05 Hz 0.05 Hz 0.17 Hz 0.17 Hz 0.5 Hz 0.5 Hz 0.17 Hz 0.05 Hz 0.05 Hz 0.05 Hz 0.05 Hz 0.05 Hz 0.05 Hz Culture plate coating Fibronectin Collagen II Collagen II Collagen II Collagen II Fibronectin Fibronectin Collagen I Pronectin Collagen I Collagen I Fibronectin Collagen II Collagen II Collagen I Collagen I Pronectin Collagen I Pronectin Pronectin Pronectin ” ” #a ” ” Collagen synthesis Proteoglycan synthesis # ” ” # # ” # # ” ” ” # # # # # # # Reference [30] [34] [23] [23] [23] [30] [30] [31] [48] [27] [47] [47] [25] [25] [31] [27] [52] [27] [53] [52] [53]Effects of CTS on total collagen and proteoglycans synthesis, sorted by loading duration # Proteoglycan or collagen synthesis of loaded cells was decreased relative to unloaded cells Proteoglycan or collagen synthesis of loaded cells was unchanged relative to unloaded cells ” Proteoglycan or collagen synthesis of loaded cells was increased relative to unloaded cellsaAssessed as intensitiy of immunostainingdoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0119816.tcollagen II and aggrecan expression. Considering the time delay between gene transcription and protein synthesis, the elevated levels of mRNA within 12 h is reflected at the protein level at later time points: For example, 7 strain and 0.5 Hz increased collagen II mRNA after 12 h [33] and the collagen synthesis after 24 h [25]. And the decrease in aggrecan mRNA when loading lasts longer than 16 h, is in accordance with a reduced proteoglycan sy.