E Res. 2012;22(3):467?7. 10. Li W, Liu M. Distribution of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in different human tissues. J Nucleic Acids. 2011. doi:10.4061/2011/11. Khare T, Pai S, Koncevicius K, Pal M, Kriukiene E, Liutkeviciute Z, et al. 5-hmC in the brain is abundant in synaptic genes and shows differences at the exon-intron boundary. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012. doi: 10.1038/nsmb.2372 12. S andour AA, Avner S, Oger F, Bizot M, Percevault F, Lucchetti-Miganeh C, et al. Dynamic hydroxymethylation of deoxyribonucleic acid marks differentiation-associated enhancers. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40(17):8255?5. 13. Uribe-Lewis S, Stark R, Carroll T, Dunning MJ, Bachman M, Ito Y, et al. 5Hydroxymethylcytosine marks promoters in colon that resist DNA hypermethylation in cancer. Genome Biol. 2015. doi:10.1186/s13059-015-0605-5. 14. Stroud H, Feng S, Morey KS, Pradhan S, Jacobsen SE. 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine is associated with enhancers and gene bodies in human embryonic stem cells. Genome Biol. 2011. doi:10.1186/gb-2011-12-6-r54. 15. Vasanthakumar A, Godley LA. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in cancer: significance in diagnosis and therapy. Cancer Genet. 2015. doi: 10.1016/j.cancergen.2015.02.009 16. Xu Y, Wu F, Tan L, Kong L, Xiong L, Deng J, et al. Genome-wide get MG516 regulation of 5hmC, 5mC, and gene expression by Tet1 hydroxylase in mouse embryonic stem cells. Mol Cell. 2011. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2011.04.005. 17. Ficz G, Gribben JG. Loss of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in cancer: cause or consequence? Genomics. 2014. doi: 10.1016/j.ygeno.2014.08.017 18. Mariani CJ, Madzo J, Moen EL, Yesilkanal A, Godley LA. Alterations of 5hydroxymethylcytosine in human cancers. Cancers (BaseI). 2013. doi: 10. 3390/cancers5030786. 19. Turcan S, Rohle D, Goenka A, Walsh LA, Fang F, Yilmaz E, et al. IDH1 mutation is sufficient to establish the glioma hypermethylator phenotype. Nature. 2012. doi:10.1038/nature10866. 20. Xu W, Yang H, Liu Y, Yang Y, Wang P, Kim SH, et al. Oncometabolite 2hydroxyglutarate is a competitive inhibitor of -ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases. Cancer Cell. 2011. doi:10.1016/j.ccr.2010.12.014 21. Jin SG, Jiang Y, Qiu R, Rauch TA, Wang Y, Schackert G, et al. 5hydroxymethylcytosine is strongly depleted in human cancers but its levels do not correlate with IDH1 mutations. Cancer Res. 2011. doi:10.1158/00085472.CAN-11-2023 22. Yang H, Ye D, Guan KL, Xiong Y. IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in tumorigenesis: mechanistic insights and clinical perspectives. Clin Cancer Res. 2012. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-1773. 23. Xiao M, Yang H, Xu W, Ma S, Lin H, Zhu H, Liu L, Liu Y, Yang C, Xu Y, Zhao S, Ye D, Xiong Y, Guan KL. Inhibition of -KG-dependent histone and DNA demethylases by fumarate and succinate that are accumulated in mutations of FH and SDH tumor suppressors. Genes Dev. 2012. doi:10.1101/gad.191056.112 24. Haley H, Schultz N, Gopalan A, Carver BS, Chang MT, Xiao Y, et al. Copy number alteration burden predicts prostate cancer relapse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;111(30):11139?4. 25. Luboldt HJ, Bex A, Swoboda A, PubMed ID:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28945807 H ing J, R ben H. Early detection of prostate cancer in Germany: a study using digital rectal examination and 4. 0 ng/ml prostate-specific antigen as cutoff. Eur Urol. 2001;39:131?. 26. Spiciarich D, Maund S, Peehl D, Bertozzi C. Identifying prostate cancer biomarkers by profiling glycoproteins in human prostate tissue. FASEB J. 2014;28:591.6. 27. Bangma CH, Roemeling S, Schrder F. Overdiagnosis and overtreatment of early detected prostate cancer. World J Urol. 2007.