Ed using a progressive reduction in muscle mass and strength (1,2), that is generally known as sarcopenia. Sarcopenia is recognized as an important danger element linked with disability and mortality (three). Day-to-day life is largely impacted by the loss of skeletal muscle mass, which subsequently leads to skeletal muscle atrophy (four). Muscle atrophy is mainly caused by musculoskeletal injury, denervation, ligament and joint immobilization, joint inflammation, joint injuries, prolonged bed rest, sepsis, aging, cancer and glucocorticoid remedy (57). In analysis, many model organisms of skeletal muscle atrophy have already been created, by means of unloading (8,9), immobilization (ten), starvation (11), denervation (12) and administration of glucocorticoids (13). Amongst them, higher doses of dexamethasone (DEXA) stimulate muscle proteolysis causing catabolic alterations in skeletal muscle tissues (14,15). The ubiquitinproteasome and lysosomal pathways are Ace 2 protein Inhibitors medchemexpress predominantly responsible for activation of glucocorticoidinduced protein degradation (16). Proteins involved in these pathways consist of atrogin1, musclespecific E3ligases, muscle RINGfinger protein1 (MuRF1), cathepsin L and lysosomal enzyme (1719). Moreover, upregulation of myostatin is definitely an crucial adverse regulator of skeletal muscle mass (20), that is linked with glucocorticoidinduced catabolic muscle atrophy (21). Muscle structure and mass are deterBiotechnology, Division of Bioindustry, College of Medical and Life Sciences, Silla university, 140 Baegyangdaero 700 Beongil, Sasanggu, Busan 46958, Republic of Korea E mail: [email protected] Professor Sae Kwang Ku, Division of Anatomy and Histology, College of Barnidipine supplier Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany university, 1 Hanuidaero, Gyeongsansi, Gyeongsangbukdo 38610, Republic of Korea E-mail: [email protected] to: Professor JaeSuk Choi, Important in FoodContributed equallyKey words: dexamethasone, proteolysis, muscle atrophy, Aureobasidium pullulans, glucanLIM et al: EFFECTS oF EAP oN DEXAMETHASoNEINDuCED MuSCuLAR ATRoPHYmined by the equilibrium involving protein synthesis and degradation, and different proteins are involved in disused muscle atrophy (9). The mRNA expression levels of these proteins may be readily detected making use of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR), and RTquantitative (q) PCR has been utilized to decide the efficacy of animal models of disused muscle atrophy (9,22). Also, apoptosis (23), muscle fiber loss and destruction of your muscle antioxidant defense method (24,25) are involved in glucocorticoidinduced catabolic muscle atrophy (26). These findings suggest that glucocorticoidinduced muscle atrophy is actually a important and effective animal model that may be employed to identify agents that protect against abnormal catabolic muscle atrophy (2629). oxymetholone (17 hydroxy2hydroxymethylidene17 methyl3androstanone) is definitely an orally active 17alkylated anabolicandrogenic steroid (30). It includes a totally saturated cyclic hydrocarbon structure, which may limit the risk of hepatotoxicity (31). oxymetholone exhibits higher anabolic activity and decrease androgenic activity than methyltestosterone, testosterone and testosterone propionate (32). oxymetholone has been approved by the uS Meals and Drug Administration for the therapy of anemiaassociated challenges which are triggered by deficient red blood cell production (33). To date, oxymetholone has been utilised to treat many musculoskeletal disorders and as a reference drug for the production of muscle enhancers.