Um hexametaphosphate. 3-Chloro-5-hydroxybenzoic acid manufacturer sample (two.five g) finer than 0.075 mm was dispersed employing sodium
Um hexametaphosphate. sample (two.five g) finer than 0.075 mm was dispersed using sodium hexametaphosphate. The The sample was centrifuged to separate coarse particles (coarser than 0.002 mm) at 600 rpm sample was centrifuged to separate coarse particles (coarser than 0.002 mm) at 600 rpm for 5 min and clay particles (finer than 0.002 mm) at 3000 rpm for 20 min. The coarse sample was air-dried at 22 C, pulverized to a fine powder, mounted onto a glass slide with random particle orientation, and examined over an angle (2) of four to 75 . In contrast, preferentially oriented clay samples have been ready as follows: (i) in air-dried state toGeosciences 2021, 11,4 ofdevelop the base case; (ii) ethylene glycol (EG) solvated to identify expansive clay minerals; and (iii) hydrochloric acid (HCl) solvated to identify soluble clay minerals. These samples had been examined over an angle (2) of 4 to 50 . The Powder Diffraction File (PDF)-4 Mineral Database from the International Centre for Diffraction Information (ICDD) was utilized for mineral identification. Likewise, the reference intensity ratio (RIR) system was applied for mineral quantification [44]. Exchangeable cations have been quantified through the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). About 10 g of sample and 40 mL of 1 M ammonium acetate had been added in a centrifuge tube that was agitated at 115 rpm for five min in a reciprocal shaker. The resolution was re-agitated just after 24 h for 15 min and filtered by way of Buchner funnel using a Whatman No.42 filter paper [45]. An extract from the filtered solution was placed in ICP-OES (Perkin Elmer Optima 7300s) to decide Na+ , K+ , Ca2+ , and Mg2+ . The sample was heated up to 7000 C and permitted to cool down. The cations were identified from the emitted light wavelengths and quantified in the spectroscopic intensity. Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) was carried out to understand weight reduction as a result of soil water removal and mineral transitions. About 100 mg of powdered soil was placed inside the Ziritaxestat site analyzer (LECO TGA 701), and the temperature was raised from 28 C (ambient) to 950 C at a uniform rate of two C/min. To preclude oxidation, the analyzer was purged with nitrogen (N2 ), plus a gas flow of 7 L/min was maintained throughout the test. The pore water traits have been determined to assess the impact of clay iquid interactions on soil fabric. A 1:1 slurry was ready by mixing 50 g of material finer than 2 mm with 50 mL of distilled water. To separate material coarser than 0.002 mm, the slurry was centrifuged at 600 rpm for 5 min utilizing Sorvall Thermo Scientific Biofuge Primo R. The pH and electrical conductivity (EC) were determined in accordance with ASTM D4972-19 [46] utilizing OHAUS starter 2100 and ASTM D1125-14 [47] using EC meter (D-54), respectively. Likewise, zeta potential (ZP) was determined for a 1:1 slurry (with material finer 0.075 mm) employing a Zeta Meter System 4.0. The sample preparation and measurement strategies are described in Azam and Rima [48]. To understand the engineering behavior of constructed earthwork, the soil was compacted (water content, w = 9 and dry unit weight, d = 17 kN/m3 ) according to ASTM D698-12e2 [49]. The WRC was determined following ASTM D6836-16 [50] employing pressure extractors to apply chosen suction () values: porous plate for as much as 50 kPa and porous membrane for up to 2000 kPa. Several identical sub-samples (40 mm diameter and ten mm thick) had been cored from the compacted sample, placed on the respective plate or membr.