and enhanced maize yield under high-density cultivation conditions [20]. As well as the plant hormones GAs and IAAs, other phytohormones, including BRs and ETH, also modulate plant height. Mutants which can be deficient in BR biosynthesis or signal transduction, which include maize na1, na2, brd1, and also the BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 knockdown line, exhibit the dwarfism phenotype [214]. The altered C-terminus of ZmACS7, encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase in ETH biosynthesis, causes a shorter stature and GSK-3β Inhibitor Compound larger leaf angle in maize [25]. Leaf width is definitely an vital index of leaf size and is actually a quantitative trait that is certainly controlled by several genes, including miRNA, transcription variables, and hormones [26]. Genes that are related to response variables, polar transport, and also the synthesis of phytohormones are believed to become particularly crucial inside the regulation of leaf development in rice [27]. NAL7 (NARROW LEAF 7), TDD1 (TRYPTOPHAN DEFICIENT DWARF MUTANT 1), and FIB (FISH BONE) are involved in auxin biosynthesis, as well as the decreased expression of those genes benefits in a narrow-leaf phenotype [280]. The auxin-deficient mutants, defective in NAL1 (NARROW LEAF 1), NAL2/3, NAL21, OsARF11, and OsARF19, which take part in auxin polar transport, distribution, and signaling, also display narrow leaves [315]. Some genes that happen to be involved inside the regulation of the gibberellin pathway, including PLA1, PLA2, SLR1, OsOFP2, D1, and GID2, have already been shown to be vital in the regulation of leaf width [11,369]. Along with hormones, the cellulose synthase-like (CSL) genes, which participate in hemicellulose synthesis, are vital in the regulation of leaf morphology [40]. DNL1, which encodes cellulose synthase-like D4, functions within the M-phase to regulate cell proliferation, and the dnl1 mutant showed a distinct narrow-leaf phenotype in rice [41]. ZmCSLD1 is essential for plant cell division, and also the Zmcsld1 mutant exhibited narrow-organ and warty phenotypes with reduced cell sizes and cell numbers [42]. It can be notable that narrow-leaf mutants usually exhibit lowered plant height, which include nal1-2, nal1-3, nal21, dnl1, dnl2, and dnl3, implying the overlapping regulatory ETB Antagonist custom synthesis mechanisms of leaf size and plant height improvement. In this study, we obtained the dwarf and narrow-leaf mutant dnl2 by EMS mutagenesis. The plant height as well as the width on the leaves of dnl2 differed significantly from those in the wild-type. The gene affecting the dnl2 phenotype was positioned on chromosome nine. Determined by the tested physiological and morphological indices, the vascular bundle patterning, secondary cell wall structure, and cell development have been altered in the leaves and internodes of dnl2 in comparison with the wild-type. Furthermore, some plant endogenous hormones also changed significantly. The content material of GA and IAA in dnl2 was drastically lower than that inside the wild-type, when the content of ABA in dnl2 was significantly larger than that inside the wild-type. Combined with RNA-seq analysis, these outcomes indicated that the modification of cell wall biosynthesis, phytohormone biosynthesis, and signal transduction contributes for the dwarfing and narrow-leaf phenotype of dnl2 by influencing cell growth.Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23,3 of2. Benefits 2.1. Pleiotropic Phenotype of your Maize dnl2 Mutant The dnl2 mutant is actually a recessive dwarf and narrow-leaf mutant isolated from a maize EMS-mutagenized population. When compared with its wild-type plant `Zheng58′, the dnl2 mutant dis