There was substantial overlap involving differentially expressed genes in the two sexes using the highest proportion of one of a kind differentially expressed genes found in males (Fig. S6). The phenotypic effects of Cf-Inv(1) are also strongly sex particular. This is probably because of sexual choice that, in C. frigida, has partly evolved in response to robust sexual PKCĪ¹ Synonyms conflict over reproduction, particularly mating price (Crean and Gilburn 1998; Dunn et al. 1999). This sexual conflict over mating prices has selected for sexual dimorphism in a few of the external phenotypic traits made use of for mating, notably size and cuticular hydrocarbon composition (Enge et al. 2021). Larger males (ordinarily ) are more successful in acquiring copulations and resisting the rejection responses that females use to prevent male mountings. The Cf-Inv(1) inversion features a big influence on a selection of traits: the morphology of males (Butlin et al. 1982; Gilburn and Day 1994), development time (Butlin and Day 1984; M ot et al. 2020b), along with the composition of cuticular hydrocarbons (Enge et al. 2021). Itwas as a result no surprise that males showed a larger gene expression difference among karyotypes in comparison with females. Surprisingly, Cf-Inv(1) was not a primary issue explaining variance in larval gene expression. A PCA in larvae identified that the very first two PCs (explaining 52 from the variance) did not separate samples depending on karyotype (Fig. 1C), alternatively a separation by population was observed (Fig. S7). We ran an added PCA on the larval data using only the Skeie population (the only population with all three karyotypes), to remove population variation. The initial two PCs (explaining 67 of the variance) together separated the karyotypes, albeit weakly (Fig. S8). To formally test the function of karyotype in partitioning variation, we ran a PERMANOVA on Manhattan distances for each subgroup (i.e., males, females, and larvae; Table S2) (Dixon 2003). As different tests had distinct sample sizes, we concentrated on R2 values (sum of squares of a factor/total sum of squares). Males and females had the highest R2 values (0.2464 and 0.153, respectively) followed by all adults and larvae (0.084 and 0.073, respectively). These results match our qualitative observations that karyotype explains the largest proportion of variance in adult males followed by adult females and then larvae. Even so, the comparison of our combined adult model with the sex-specific models shows that separating sex is essential for quantifying the impact of karyotype. Therefore, the superficial appearance of inversion getting less influence on larval gene expression may be since larval sex was not determined. Additional dissecting differential expression in our full larval dataset corroborated our qualitative observations. Simply because we had 3 Adenosine A2B receptor (A2BR) Antagonist Compound genotypes in larvae (, , and ), we ran 3 distinct contrast statements ( vs. , vs. , and vs. ). When comparing expression in versus , we identified that 23 out of 15,859 transcripts have been differentially expressed and most of these (74 ) have been upregulated in (Fig. S9). Comparing expression in versus. , we discovered 29 out of 15,859 transcripts to become differentially expressed and most of these (83 ) had been upregulated in (Fig. S10). Comparing expression in versus , we found six out of 15,859 transcripts to be differentially expressed and most of these (83 ) had been upregulated in . There was some overlap in between these 3 contrasts (Fig. S11). We compared expression patterns of our considerably and