Presentation of connected peptides of distinct length and conformation, homologous to self-peptides with high flexibility in their bound state. In conclusion, the higher accuracy and sensitivity of present MS technologies brought about a significant improvement in the detection of naturally processed HLA-B27 ligands from C. trachomatis, allowing us to detect 3 novel peptides from distinct proteins, such as the second identified HLA-B27-restricted epitope recognized by T-cells from ReA individuals. Both the homology of all the reported peptides with human sequences carrying the binding motif of HLA-B27 plus the discovering of a peptide from DNAP with important sequence and conformational similarity to a human-derived HLA-B27 ligand recommend that molecular mimicry in β adrenergic receptor Modulator review between bacterial and self-derived HLA-B27 ligands could play a part in ReA. This mechanism could provide an autoimmune element that would exacerbate the proinflammatory function of HLA-B27, influencing disease severity and evolution toward chronicity.Acknowledgments–We thank the employees on the Proteomics facilities at the Centro de Biolog Molecular Severo Ochoa and Centro Nacional de Biotecnolog , Madrid, for enable in MS.14. Jendro, M. C., Fingerle, F., Deutsch, T., Liese, A., Kohler, L., Kuipers, J. G., Raum, E., Martin, M., and Zeidler, H. (2004) Chlamydia trachomatisinfected macrophages induce apoptosis of activated T cells by secretion of tumor necrosis factor- in vitro. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 193, 452 15. Fields, K. A., and Hackstadt, T. (2002) The chlamydial inclusion. Escape from the endocytic pathway. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 18, 22145 16. Beatty, W. L., Belanger, T. A., Desai, A. A., Morrison, R. P., and Byrne, G. I. (1994) NF-κB Activator Species Tryptophan depletion as a mechanism of interferon-mediated chlamydial persistence. Infect. Immun. 62, 3705711 17. Beatty, W. L., Belanger, T. A., Desai, A. A., Morrison, R. P., and Byrne, G. I. (1994) Part of tryptophan in interferon-mediated chlamydial persistence. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 730, 304 06 18. Zhong, G., Fan, T., and Liu, L. (1999) Chlamydia inhibits interferon -inducible important histocompatibility complex class II expression by degradation of upstream stimulatory issue 1. J. Exp. Med. 189, 1931938 19. Zhong, G., Liu, L., Fan, T., Fan, P., and Ji, H. (2000) Degradation of transcription factor RFX5 through the inhibition of both constitutive and interferon -inducible significant histocompatibility complicated class I expression in chlamydia-infected cells. J. Exp. Med. 191, 1525534 20. Zhong, G., Fan, P., Ji, H., Dong, F., and Huang, Y. (2001) Identification of a chlamydial protease-like activity factor accountable for the degradation of host transcription aspects. J. Exp. Med. 193, 93542 21. Zhong, G. (2011) Chlamydia trachomatis secretion of proteases for manipulating host signaling pathways. Front. Microbiol. 2, 14 22. Loomis, W. P., and Starnbach, M. N. (2002) T cell responses to Chlamydia trachomatis. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. five, 871 23. Marcilla, M., and Lopez de Castro, J. A. (2008) Peptides. The cornerstone of HLA-B27 biology and pathogenetic part in spondyloarthritis. Tissue Antigens 71, 49506 24. Benjamin, R., and Parham, P. (1990) Guilt by association. HLA-B27 and ankylosing spondylitis. Immunol. These days 11, 13742 25. Albert, L. J., and Inman, R. D. (1999) Molecular mimicry and autoimmunity. N. Engl. J. Med. 341, 2068 074 26. May possibly, E., Dorris, M. L., Satumtira, N., Iqbal, I., Rehman, M. I., Lightfoot, E., and Taurog, J. D. (2003) CD8 T cells usually are not vital to.