In (volatiles) and accessory (nonvolatiles) olfactory bulbs. This details is processed by the Me and subsequently directed to ventral striatal nuclei (and especially to the mOT) through direct and indirect pathways, probably involving the BNST and VTA [5]. VTA-originating DA release from terminals inside the mAcb and mOT in response to opposite-sex pheromones likely plays a part within the attribution of saliency to these odors, driving females to seek out male odors, devoid of which the motivation to locate a mate and reproduce would be compromised.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptAcknowledgmentsSupported by NIH grant DC008962 awarded to JAC.
Research COMMUNICATIONSubnuclear partitioning of rRNA genes in between the nucleolus and nucleoplasm reflects option epiallelic statesFrederic Pontvianne,1,two,9,12 Todd Blevins,1,2,3,8 ?Chinmayi Chandrasekhara,1,two,eight Iva Mozgova,4,8,ten Christiane Hassel,5 Olga M.F. Pontes,6 ? Sarah Tucker,7,11 Petr Mokros,4 Veronika Muchova 4 ?Jiri Fajkus,four and Craig S. Pikaard1,2,3,1 Department of Biology, 2Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA; 3Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA; 4CEITEC-Central European Institute of Technologies and Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, CZ-62500 Brno, Czech Republic; 5Flow Cytometry Core Facility, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA; six Division of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131, USA; 7Division of DOT1L Inhibitor Storage & Stability Biology and Biomedical Sciences, JAK3 Inhibitor manufacturer Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130, USAEukaryotes can have a large number of 45S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, quite a few of that are silenced through development. Using fluorescence-activated sorting procedures, we show that active rRNA genes in Arabidopsis thaliana are present within sorted nucleoli, whereas silenced rRNA genes are excluded. DNA methyltransferase (met1), histone deacetylase (hda6), or chromatin assembly (caf1) mutants that disrupt silencing abrogate this nucleoplasmic ucleolar partitioning. Bisulfite sequencing information indicate that active nucleolar rRNA genes are almost totally demethylated at promoter CGs, whereas silenced genes are practically completely methylated. Collectively, the data reveal that rRNA genes occupy distinct but changeable nuclear territories as outlined by their epigenetic state.Supplemental material is available for this article. Received Might 9, 2013; revised version accepted June 14, 2013.Fig. 1A). Their transcripts, generated by RNA polymerase I (Pol I) inside the nucleolus, are processed into the 18S, five.8S, and 25-28S (based on species) catalytic RNAs of ribosomes (Moss et al. 2007; Kressler et al. 2010; Hannan et al. 2013). The number of active 45S rRNA genes modifications with all the physiological needs in the cell (McStay and Grummt 2008; Tucker et al. 2010). For instance, Arabidopsis thaliana has ;1500 rRNA genes per diploid genome (Copenhaver et al. 1995; Copenhaver and Pikaard 1996), with subtypes distinguishable by insertions/ deletions at their 39 ends (Fig. 1A). All subtypes are expressed quickly following germination, but by ;ten d of seedling growth, the variant 1 subtype (Fig. 1A), accounting for ;50 of all rRNA genes, is silenced by means of epigenetic mechanisms that include alterations in DNA methylation and histone modification (Earley et al. 2006, 2010; Pontvianne et al. 2010, 2012). Chromatin modifications mediate rRNA gene.