Nd 215201 (to HSS and GKS); Sciencefund Grant, MOSTI, Malaysia (02-01-04-SF1306) awarded to P-SC; along with the APEX Foundation for Study into Intellectual Disability Restricted to CAH: K-HL was a recipient from the Melbourne International Charge Remission Scholarship and Universiti Putra Malaysia Staff Coaching Scholarship, and a Adelaide Fees Scholarship International equivalent. K-LT and H-CL have been a recipient of Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education MyPhD scholarship. The microarrays were performed by the Australian Genome Analysis Facility, which was established via the Commonwealth-funded Key National Analysis Facilities plan. The authors would prefer to thank Teresa Occhiodoro for editing advice. Author details 1 Genetics and Regenerative Medicine Analysis Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Wellness Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. 2Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Health-related Research, 1G Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia. 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine and IL-27, Human (CHO, His) Overall health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. 4Pathology Department, The Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria 3002, Australia. five Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Well being Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. six Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Overall health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. 7 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800, Australia. 8Department of Molecular Pathology, SA Pathology and Centre for Cancer Biology, P.O. Box 14 Rundle Mall Post Office, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia. 9School of Medicine, Faculty of Well being Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia. Received: 23 Might 2014 Accepted: 16 July 2014 Published: 22 July 2014 References 1. Antonarakis SE, Lyle R, Dermitzakis ET, Reymond A, Deutsch S: Chromosome 21 and down syndrome: from genomics to VCAM-1/CD106 Protein Species pathophysiology. Nat Rev Genet 2004, 5:725?38.8.9.ten. Cleve SN, Cannon S, Cohen WI: Part II: Clinical practice suggestions for adolescents and young adults with down syndrome: 12 to 21 Years. J Pediatr Health Care 2006, 20:198?05. Van Cleve SN, Cohen WI: Aspect I: clinical practice guidelines for kids with Down syndrome from birth to 12 years. J Pediatr Well being Care 2006, 20:47?4. Vicari S, Bellucci S, Carlesimo GA: Visual and spatial long-term memory: differential pattern of impairments in Williams and Down syndromes. Dev Med Youngster Neurol 2005, 47:305?11. Brown JH, Johnson MH, Paterson SJ, Gilmore R, Longhi E, Karmiloff-Smith A: Spatial representation and interest in toddlers with Williams syndrome and Down syndrome. Neuropsychologia 2003, 41:1037?046. Kaufmann WE, Moser HW: Dendritic anomalies in issues connected with mental retardation. Cereb Cortex 2000, 10:981?91. Wisniewski KE: Down syndrome children typically have brain with maturation delay, retardation of growth, and cortical dysgenesis. Am J Med Genet Suppl 1990, 7:274?81. Takashima S, Iida K, Mito T, Arima M: Dendritic and histochemical development and ageing in individuals with Down’s syndrome. J Intellect Disabil Res 1994, 38(Pt three):265?73. Pritchard MA, Kola I: The “gene dosage effect” hypothesis versus the “amplified developmental instability” hypothesis in Down syndrome. J Neural Trans.