STAT3 and phospho-STAT3 were purchased from Cell Signaling Technology

id not affect glutamate-stimulated ATP production in mitochondria isolated from rat hippocampus and cortex and from SH-SY5Y and C6 cells. SB366791 mitochondrial NCX1/EAAC1 Sustain Brain Metabolism Mitochondrial NCX1/EAAC1 Sustain Brain Metabolism 9 Mitochondrial NCX1/EAAC1 Sustain Brain Metabolism was unable to counteract the glutamate-induced mitochondrial depolarization. Ru-360 alone did not affect the inner mitochondrial membrane potential in resting condition. In mitochondria EAAC1 and NCX1 are parts of a multimolecular complex We have recently shown that the three gene products of the plasma membrane Na/Ca2 exchanger, NCX1, NCX2 and NCX3, also localize to the inner mitochondrial membrane. We speculated that interaction of any of the NCX proteins with mitochondrial EAATs would entail its close association with them. We thus performed immunoprecipitation studies on hippocampal and cortical mitochondrial extracts using antibodies against GLAST, GLT1 and EAAC1 and then sought NCX immunoreactivity. Strong NCX1 immunoreactivity was found in the EAAC1 antibody precipitates; in line with these results EAAC1 was pulled down by NCX1 antibody on reverse immunoprecipitation. ” These data suggest that a multimolecular complex made up of EAAC1 and NCX1 exists in hippocampal and cortical mitochondria, and several lines of evidence strongly support the selectivity and specificity of such interaction. First, the EAAC1 antibody pulled down neither NCX2 nor NCX3. Second, the NCX1 antibody 10 Mitochondrial NCX1/EAAC1 Sustain Brain Metabolism 11 Mitochondrial NCX1/EAAC1 Sustain Brain Metabolism pulled down neither GLAST nor GLT1. Third, when mitochondrial extracts were pulled down with normal mouse serum, we were unable to detect NCX1, EAAC1, GLAST or GLT1. Fourth, mitochondrial extracts pulled down with EAAC1 or NCX 1 antibodies did not contain adenine nucleotide translocase, another inner mitochondrial membrane protein , suggesting that the EAAC1 antibody does not recognize nonspecific 16648369mitochondrial components and confirming that the association of EAAC1 and NCX1 found in mitochondria was specific. The coimmunoprecipitation data were confirmed on mitochondrial extracts from SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma and C6 glioma cells. The hypothesis that EAAC1 and NCX1 could coassemble in neuronal and glial mitochondria was strengthened by confocal experiments showing their consistent colocalization in immunofluorescence studies performed on isolated mitochondria spotted on glass micro slides. NCX1 dependence of glutamate-stimulated ATP synthesis SH-SY5Y cells express NCX1 and NCX3 , while C6 cells express all three NCX. To ” establish whether the privileged association of EAAC1 and NCX1 emerging from the immunoprecipitation experiments also corre- 12 Mitochondrial NCX1/EAAC1 Sustain Brain Metabolism sponded to a predominant role of NCX1 in mediating the effect of glutamate on mitochondrial metabolism we used an AsODN approach . NCX1 knock-down induced the same effect as CGP-37157, abrogating glutamate-induced ATP synthesis both in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma, and in C6 glioma cells, whereas NCX2 and NCX3 knock-down was wholly ineffective. Finally, it is noteworthy that results obtained in isolated mitochondria were strengthened by experiments performed in hippocampal and cortical slices, a well-known integrated system which largely preserves the tissue architecture and physiology of brain regions. In this system, DL-TBOA and CGP-37157 completely counteracted glutamate-stimulated ATP syn