Since IL-23 is required for IL-17A production, we measured IL23p19 in the lung homogenate

ifferentially methylated CpG sites to the closest downstream gene, and found there are 55 overlapping 24020966 genes between the 17328890 lists of genes with changes in DNA methylation and mRNA expression data. The microarray data is MIAME compliant and is available at the Gene Expression Omnibus Web site under accession No.GSE31699. Bisulfite genomic sequencing To confirm DNA methylation levels by bisulfite sequencing, 500 ng of gDNA was treated with sodium bisulfite according to the manufacturer’s instructions. For PCR amplification, 3 ml of bisulfite-treated DNA was added to a final volume of 20 ml. ZymoTaq PreMix was used for all PCR reactions. The thermal cycler conditions were as follows: 95uC for 10 min then 40 cycles of denaturation at 95uC for 30 sec, annealing at 50uC for 2 min, and elongation at 72uC for 2 min, followed by an extension at 72uC for 7 min. PCR products were gel purified and cloned into the PCR 2.1 vector. After transformation, 10 clones were sequenced on the Applied Biosystems 377 instrument. Methylation sites were visualized and quality control was performed using the QUMA software and Biq analyzer. qScript cDNA Supermix from 2 mg of RNA. Primers against KLF11 and DLEC1 and the constitutively expressed glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were used as described in previous reports. Primer G5555 specificity was confirmed by the demonstration of single peaks using dissociation curves after amplification of cDNA and a lack of amplification of genomic DNA. Real-time PCR was performed to determine the relative amounts of each transcript using the DNA-binding dye SYBR green and the ABI Prism 7900HT Detection System. Cycling conditions started at 50 C for 2 min, followed by 95uC for 10 min, then 40 cycles of 95uC for 15 sec and 60uC for 1 min. The cycle threshold was placed at a set level where the exponential increase in PCR amplification was approximately parallel between all samples. Relative fold change was calculated by comparing Ct values between the target gene and GAPDH as the reference guide.The medium was changed every 24 hrs. Total RNA was isolated using Tri-reagent. All of the experiments were repeated in triplicate using samples from at least 7 new different subjects not previously used in microarrays, 4 subjects were African- and 3 Caucasian-American. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR Total RNA from fresh tissues and leiomyoma smooth muscle cells was extracted using Tri-reagent and the RNeasy Fibrous Tissue kit. cDNA was prepared with Protein Analysis Protein was extracted from 50 mg of frozen tissues using mammalian protein extraction reagent. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation in Uterine Leiomyoma Lysates were cleared by centrifugation at 14, 000 rpm for 10 min. Equal amounts of protein were resolved on 412% Ready Gel Precast Gels, and transferred onto PVDF membranes. The membranes were bloted with antihuman KLF11 antibodies 1:1000, DLEC1 1:500, and KRT19 1:1000. Anti-GAPDH antibody was used as a loading control. Dectection was detected using a Supersignal West Femto. Quantification of the immunoblots was done using ImageJ software and normalized to GAPDH. Statistical analysis Statistical significance was determined by Student’s t test and one-way ANOVA followed by Fisher’s protected least significant difference test. Significance was accepted at P,0.05. Oxidative stress is a contributing factor to retinal pigment epithelial cell dysfunction in age-related macular degeneration . Characteristic features of early AMD include the ac