T wa c-kit at both protein and mRNA level *P,0.05 versus

T wa c-kit at both protein and mRNA level *P,0.05 versus the control group. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069134.gResults CPCs generation and phenotypic characterizationCPCs were acquired from the hearts of adult C57BL/6 mouse by mild enzymatic digestion. c-kit(+)CPCs and c-kit(2)CPCs were separated by magnetic-activated cell sorting. After approximately 10 days of culture, a layer of fibroblast-like cells emerged from adherent myocardial tissues, followed by small, round and phasebright cells (Figures 1A). The inverted phase-contrast microscope examinations showed that CPCs presented clone-like proliferation (Figure 1B). c-kit(+)CPCs and c-kit(2)CPCs were characterized by flow cytometric analysis of the cell surface markers, namely, c-kit and Sca-1 (Figure 1C and 1D).protein and mRNA levels, whereas AMD3100 could inhibit this function (Figures 2A and 2B).SDF-1a enhances proliferation and Title Loaded From File migration of CPCsTo determine whether SDF-1a will influence CPCs proliferation and migration toward SCF, we performed an in vitro CCK-8 assay and migration assay, and CPCs were placed under SDF-1a with or without the CXCR4 specific antagonist AMD3100. The results indicated that c-kit(+)CPCs proliferation rates of SDF-1a group (0.16260.008 OD) increase significantly, compared with that of control group (0.11460.002 OD) and SDF1a+AMD3100group 16985061 (0.12560.003 OD), and c-kit(2) CPCs proliferation rates of SDF-1a group (0.13560.004 OD) increase significantly, compared with that of control group (0.06360.004 OD) and SDF-1a+AMD3100group (0.08060.006 OD) (Figure 3A). And c-kit(+)CPCs migration rates of SDF-1a group (SCF+SDF-1a) (602.3620.0 cells) also increase significantly, compared with that of control group (with SCF, without SDF1a) (85.0611.8 cells), and inhibition group (with SCF+SDF1a+AMD3100) (138.7614.6 cells), and c-kit(-)CPCs migration rates of SDF-1a group (SCF+SDF-1a) (272.0650.7 cells) also increase signicantly, compared with that of control group (with SCF, without SDF-1a) (37.065.0 cells), and inhibition group (withSDF-1a up-regulates c-kit expression in CPCsC-kit-positive CPCs were divided into three groups, namely, control, SDF-1a (treated with 100 ng/ml SDF-1a for 48 h), and SDF-1a + AMD3100 groups (treated with 100 ng/ml SDF-1a and 5 mg/ml AMD3100 for 48 h). The groups were analyzed using western blotting and qPCR to identify protein and mRNA level. We found that SDF-1a could up-regulate c-kit expression of c-kit(+)CPCs and make c-kit(2)CPCs expressing c-kit at bothEpigenetic Regulation of c-kitFigure 5. Induction of SDF-1a on demethylation of the c-kit promoter in CPCs. (A) Profiling of the site-specific methylation of CpG sites in the c-kit promoter region. Each line represents a CpG methylation profile of the c-kit promoter region from the control (PC1 to PC3) and the SDF-1 (PS1 to PS3) samples. The colors of each Title Loaded From File circle represent the methylation level of each corresponding CpG unit. The white circles represent the missing data at a given CpG site. (B) CPCs were stimulated with 100 ng/ml SDF-1a for 48 h. Genomic DNA was extracted and subjected to Bisulfite sequencing analysis. The data represent the percentage of methylation at corresponding CpG sites, with CpG site number corresponding to the sites identified in the schematic diagram. Data were obtained from three independent experiments and are expressed as mean 6 SD. n = 3.rol group.n of cit and GAPHD.0.Western blot wa c-kit at both protein and mRNA level *P,0.05 versus the control group. doi.T wa c-kit at both protein and mRNA level *P,0.05 versus the control group. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069134.gResults CPCs generation and phenotypic characterizationCPCs were acquired from the hearts of adult C57BL/6 mouse by mild enzymatic digestion. c-kit(+)CPCs and c-kit(2)CPCs were separated by magnetic-activated cell sorting. After approximately 10 days of culture, a layer of fibroblast-like cells emerged from adherent myocardial tissues, followed by small, round and phasebright cells (Figures 1A). The inverted phase-contrast microscope examinations showed that CPCs presented clone-like proliferation (Figure 1B). c-kit(+)CPCs and c-kit(2)CPCs were characterized by flow cytometric analysis of the cell surface markers, namely, c-kit and Sca-1 (Figure 1C and 1D).protein and mRNA levels, whereas AMD3100 could inhibit this function (Figures 2A and 2B).SDF-1a enhances proliferation and migration of CPCsTo determine whether SDF-1a will influence CPCs proliferation and migration toward SCF, we performed an in vitro CCK-8 assay and migration assay, and CPCs were placed under SDF-1a with or without the CXCR4 specific antagonist AMD3100. The results indicated that c-kit(+)CPCs proliferation rates of SDF-1a group (0.16260.008 OD) increase significantly, compared with that of control group (0.11460.002 OD) and SDF1a+AMD3100group 16985061 (0.12560.003 OD), and c-kit(2) CPCs proliferation rates of SDF-1a group (0.13560.004 OD) increase significantly, compared with that of control group (0.06360.004 OD) and SDF-1a+AMD3100group (0.08060.006 OD) (Figure 3A). And c-kit(+)CPCs migration rates of SDF-1a group (SCF+SDF-1a) (602.3620.0 cells) also increase significantly, compared with that of control group (with SCF, without SDF1a) (85.0611.8 cells), and inhibition group (with SCF+SDF1a+AMD3100) (138.7614.6 cells), and c-kit(-)CPCs migration rates of SDF-1a group (SCF+SDF-1a) (272.0650.7 cells) also increase signicantly, compared with that of control group (with SCF, without SDF-1a) (37.065.0 cells), and inhibition group (withSDF-1a up-regulates c-kit expression in CPCsC-kit-positive CPCs were divided into three groups, namely, control, SDF-1a (treated with 100 ng/ml SDF-1a for 48 h), and SDF-1a + AMD3100 groups (treated with 100 ng/ml SDF-1a and 5 mg/ml AMD3100 for 48 h). The groups were analyzed using western blotting and qPCR to identify protein and mRNA level. We found that SDF-1a could up-regulate c-kit expression of c-kit(+)CPCs and make c-kit(2)CPCs expressing c-kit at bothEpigenetic Regulation of c-kitFigure 5. Induction of SDF-1a on demethylation of the c-kit promoter in CPCs. (A) Profiling of the site-specific methylation of CpG sites in the c-kit promoter region. Each line represents a CpG methylation profile of the c-kit promoter region from the control (PC1 to PC3) and the SDF-1 (PS1 to PS3) samples. The colors of each circle represent the methylation level of each corresponding CpG unit. The white circles represent the missing data at a given CpG site. (B) CPCs were stimulated with 100 ng/ml SDF-1a for 48 h. Genomic DNA was extracted and subjected to Bisulfite sequencing analysis. The data represent the percentage of methylation at corresponding CpG sites, with CpG site number corresponding to the sites identified in the schematic diagram. Data were obtained from three independent experiments and are expressed as mean 6 SD. n = 3.rol group.n of cit and GAPHD.0.Western blot wa c-kit at both protein and mRNA level *P,0.05 versus the control group. doi.

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