Cture Center. The authors are also grateful to 1-Methylpyrrolidine-d3 manufacturer Teraguchi, M.; Nomoto, T.; Tanaka, T.; and Hatamachi, T. in the Facility of Engineering at Niigata University for permitting the use of the ICPMS, XRD, FTIR, SEMEDS, and the surface area analyzer. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
applied sciencesArticleParametric Study on Strength Traits of TwoDimensional Ice Beam Using Discrete Element MethodSeongjin Song 1 , Wooyoung Jeon 2 and Sunho Park 1,2, Division of Ocean Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan 49112, Korea; [email protected] Department of Convergence Study on the Ocean Science and Technology, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan 49112, Korea; [email protected] Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: 8251410Abstract: Strength qualities of a twodimensional ice beam were studied working with a discrete element system (DEM). The DEM solver was implemented by the opensource discrete element technique libraries. Threepoint bending and uniaxial compressive tests of your ice beam were simulated. The ice beam consisted of an assembly of diskshaped particles using a particular thickness. The connection on the ice particles was modelled using a cuboid element, which represents a bond. If the stress acting on the bond exceeded the bond strength criterion, the bond started to break, explaining the cracking of your ice beam. To find out the impact on the sn-Glycerol 3-phosphate In Vivo neighborhood parameters with the contact and bond models on the ice fracture, we performed numerical simulations for several bond Young`s modulus on the particles, the bond strength, along with the relative particle size ratio. Keywords: ice beam; discrete element method; make contact with model; bond model; ice fracture; threepoint bending testCitation: Song, S.; Jeon, W.; Park, S. Parametric Study on Strength Qualities of TwoDimensional Ice Beam Utilizing Discrete Element System. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 8409. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11188409 Academic Editor: Francesca Scargiali Received: 20 August 2021 Accepted: eight September 2021 Published: ten September1. Introduction Because the sea ice region coverage within the Arctic Ocean shrinks more than the years on account of climate adjust, the operation of ships in the Arctic Ocean have been issued. To operate a ship in the sea ice location, accurate prediction of ice breaking performance is required. Research for an ice breaking load estimation happen to be carried out making use of empirical, analytical, and numerical solutions [1]. The empirical technique used measured information in fullscale trials and modelscale experiments. Formulations based on fullscale data make extremely trustworthy procedures for the ice load prediction, when there is a limitation with regard to acquiring definitive data on properties, e.g., thickness, strength, and friction [2,3]. The model tests in the ice model basin possess the benefit of being able to measure the ice load below many operating circumstances compared to the fullscale measurements, however it is quite hard to evaluate the ice efficiency with different design and style aspects as a consequence of price and time difficulties. Consequently, there is certainly an rising need for numerical models to predict the correct ice load with regard to several sea ice situations inside the initial design stages of Arctic offshore structures [4]. Numerical approaches for ice modeling could possibly be divided into a continuous approach, which include the finite element method (FEM) and finite discrete strategy (FDM), and also a discontinuous method, like the discrete element method (DEM). The FEM i.